Part IV: Warkworth’s Chronicle

The Warkworth Chronicle: Part IV

Warkworth’s Chronicle

The Ninth Regnal Year of Edward IV through the Birth of Prince Edward in Sanctuary at Westminster

In the ix. yere of the regne of Kynge Edwarde, at myssomerre, the Duke of Clarence passede the see to Caleis to the Erle of Warwyke, and there weddede his doughter by the Archbysshoppe of Yorke the Erle of Warwyke brothere, and afterwarde come overe ayene. And anone aftere that, ther assig[n]ment, there was a grete insurreccyon in Yorkeschyre, of dyvers knyghtes, squyres, and comeners, to the nowmbere of xx{ti} M{1}.; and Sere William Conyars knyghte was therre capteyne, whiche callede hym self Robyne of Riddesdale; and agens them aroose, by the Kynges commawndement, Lorde Harbarde, Erle of Penbroke, withe xliij. M{1}. (1) of Walschemenne, the beste in Wales, and Humfray Stafforde, with vij. M{1} of archers of the weste countre; and as thei went togedere to mete the northemenne at a towne, there felle in a varyaunce for ther logynge, and so the Erle of Devenschyre departed from the Erle of Penbroke withe alle his menne. And Robyne of Riddesdale came uppone the Walschemenne in a playne byyonde Banbury toune (2), and ther thei faughthe strongly togedere, and ther was the Erle of Penbroke takene, and his brother withe hym, and two M{1}. Walschemenne slayne, and so the Walschemen loste the felde the xxvj. day of Juylle the same yere. The names of the gentylmen that were slayne (3) of Walsche party in the same batelle:–Sere Rogere Vaghan, knyght; Herry Organ (4) sonne and heyre; Thomas Aprossehere Vaghan, squyere; William Harbarde of Breknoke, squyere; Watkyn Thomas, sonne to Rogere Vaghan; Yvan ap Jhon of Merwyke; Davy ap Jankyn of Lymmerke; Harry Done ap Pikton; John Done of Kydwelle; Ryse ap Morgon ap Ulston; Jankyn Perot ap Scottesburght; John Enead of Penbrokeschire; and Jhon Contour of Herforde. And of the north party ther was slayne Sere Herry Latymere (5), sonne and heyre to the Lorde Latymere; Sere Rogere Pygot, knyghte; James Conya[r]s, sonne and heyre to Sere Jhon Conay[r]s (6), knyght; Olivere Audley (7), squyere; Thomas Wakes sonne and heyre; William Mallerye, squyere; and many othere comyners, &c. And at that tyme was the Lorde Ryvers takene, and one of his sonnes, in the forest of Dene, and brought to Northamtone, and the Erle of Penbroke a[nd] Sere Richard Herbarde (8) his brother were behedede at Northamtone, all iiij. by the commawndement of the Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke; and Thomas Harbarde was slayne at Brystow, &c. And at that same tyme was Stafford, that was Erle of Devynschyre but half a yere, take at Bryggewatere by the comons ther in Somerettschyre, and ther ryghte behedede. And after that the Archebysschoppe of Yorke had understondynge that Kynge Edwarde was in a vilage bysyde Northamptone (9), and alle his peple he reysed were fledde fro hym; by the avyse of the Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke he rode with certeyne horsmenne harneysed withe hym, and toke Kynge Edwarde, and had hym unto Warwyke castelle a lytelle whyle, and afterwarde to Yorke cite; and ther, by fayre speche and promyse, the Kynge scaped out of the Bisshoppys handes, and came unto Londone, and dyd what hym lykede. And the same yere, the xxix. day of Septembre, Humfrey Nevylle, knyght, and Charles his brothere, were takene by the Erle of Warwyke, and behedede at Yorke, the Kynge beynge present. And in the same yere [was] made a proclamacyone at the Kynges Benche in Westmynstere, and in the cyte of Londone, and in alle Englond, a generalle pardone(10) tylle alle manere of men for alle manere of insurreccyons and trespasses; and also a hole xv{sim}schulde be gaderyd and payed that same yere at Martynmasse, and at oure Lady-Day in Lent after; whiche noyed the peple, for thei had payed a lytelle before a gret taske, and the xv. parte of every mannes good, &c.(11)

And in the x. yere (12) of Kynge Edwardes regne, in the moneth of Marche, the Lorde Willowby, the Lord Welles his sonne (13), Thomas Delalond knyght, and Sere Thomas Dymmoke knyght, the Kynges Champyon, droff oute of Lyncolnschyre Sere Thomas à Burghe, a knyght of the Kynges howse, and pullede downe his place, and toke alle his goodes and cataylle that thei myghte fynde, and thei gaderid alle the comons of the schyre to the nowmbre of xxx. M{1}., and cryed “Kynge Herry,” and refused Kynge Edwarde. And the Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke causede alle this, lyke as thei dyde Robyne of Riddesdale to ryse afore that at Banbury felde. And whenne Kynge Edwarde herde hereof, he made oute his commyssyons, and gaderyd a grete peple of menne, and sent his pardonne to the Lorde Willowby, and a commaundement that thei schuld come to hym, and so he dyd. And whenne the Kynge was sure of hym, he and alle his oste went towarde Lyncolneschyre, the Lord Welles, and all the othere peple were gadred togedere, and commawndede Lorde Wyllowby to sende a lettere to hys sonne and to alle the peple that he gaderyde, that thei schulde yelde them to hym as to ther soveryne Lorde, or ellys he made a woue (14) that the Lorde Willowby schuld lese his hede; and he wrote and sent his lettere forthe, but therfor they wulde nogt ceysse; wherfor the Kynge comawndyde the Lorde Wyllowhby hede for to be smytene of, notwithstondynge his pardone. And so the Kynge toke his oste and went towarde his enemyes, and losyde his gonnys of his ordynaunce uppone them, and faught with them, and anone the comons fledde away; but ther was many manne slayne of Lyncolneschyre, and the Lorde Wellys, Sere Thomas Delalonde, and Sere Thomas Dymmoke, knyghts, takene and behedede. And whenne the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of Warwike herde the felde was loste, and how there cownselle was dyscoverede, thei fledde westwarde to the see syde, and toke there here schippys, and sayled towarde Southamptone, and e[n]tendet there to have a grete schyppe of the seide Erle of Warwykes callyde the Trinite; but the Lorde Scales, the Quenes brother, was sent thedere by the Kynges commawndement, and other withe hym, and faught with the seide Duke and Erle, and toke there dyverse schyppes of theres and many of ther men therein; so that the Duke and the Erle were fayne to flee to the Kynge of Fraunce, where thei were worschipfully receyved. And after this the Kynge Edwarde came to Southamptone, and commawndede the Erle of Worcetere to sitt and juge suche menne as were taken in the schyppes, and so xx. persones of gentylmen and yomenne were hangede, drawne, and quartered, and hedede; and after that thei hanged uppe by the leggys, and a stake made scharpe at bothe endes, whereof one ende was putt in att bottokys, and the other ende ther heddes were putt uppe one; for whiche the peple of the londe were gretely displesyd; and evere afterwarde the Erle of Worcestre was gretely behatede emonge the peple, for ther dysordinate dethe that he used, contrarye to the lawe of the londe.

And whenne the seide Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke were in Fraunce, there apperede a blasynge sterre in the weste, and the flame therof lyke a spere hede, the whiche dyverse of the Kynges howse saw it, whereof thei were fulle sore adrede. And thanne in Fraunce whenne the seide lordes where, thei toke there counselle qwhat was beste for to do; and thei coude fynde no remedy but to sende to Quene Margaret, and to make a maryage betwex Prynce Edwarde, Kynge Herry sonne, and an other of the seid Erle of Warwykys doughters, whiche was concluded, and in Fraunce worschippfully wedded. And there it was apoyntede and acordede that Kynge Herry schuld rejoyse the kyngdome (15) of Englonde ageyne, and regne as welle as he dyd before, and after hym hys Prynce Edward and his heyres of his body lawfully begotyne; and if it appenede that he disceysed witheoute heyres of his body lawfully gotene, thenne schulde the kyngdome of Englonde, with the lordschyppes of Irlonde, remane unto George, the Duke of Clarence, and his heyre[s] for evere more. Also it was apoynted and agreede that Herry Duke of Excetre, Edmunde Duke of Somersett, brother to Herry that was slayne at Hexham felde, the Erle of Devynschyre called Courtnay, and all othere knyghtes, squyers, and all other that were putt oute and atayntede for Kynges Herry quarrelle, schulde come into Englonde ageyne, and every man rejoyse his owne lyfflode and inhabytauntes (16, 17); whiche alle this poyntment aforeseide were wrytene, indentyde, and sealede, bytwixe the seide Quene Margaret, The Prynce hire sonne, in that one party, and the Duke of Clarence, and the Erle of Warwik, one that othere party. And moreovere, to make it sure, thei were sworne, and made grete othys eche to othere, wiche was done be alle Kynge of Fraunce counselle.

And in the same x. yere aforeseide, a lytelle before Michaelmesse, the Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke londede in the west countre, and gadered there a grete peple. The Lorde Markes Montagu hade gaderyd vi. M{1} men, by Kynge Edwardes commysyone and commaundement, to the entente to have recistede the seide Duke of Clarence, and the Erle of Warwyke. Nevere the lattere, the seide Markes Montagu hatyde the Kynge, and purposede to have taken hym; and whenne he was withein a myle of Kynge Edwarde, he declarede to the peple that was there gaderede with hym, how Kynge Edwarde hade fyrst yevyne to hym the erledome of Northumberlonde, and how he toke it from hym and gaff it to Herry Percy, whos fadere was slayne at Yorke felde; and how of late tyme hade made hym Markes of Montagu, and yaff a pyes neste to mayntene his astate withe; where for he yaff knoleage to his peple that he wulde holde withe the Erle of Warwyke, his brothere, and take Kynge Edwarde if he myght, and alle tho that wold holde with hym. But anone one of the oste went oute frome the fellawschippe, and tolde Kynge Edwarde alle manere of thynge, and bade hym avoyde, for he was nogt stronge enoghe to gyff batayle to Markes Montagu; and then anone Kynge Edwarde haysted hym in alle that he myght to the towne of Lynne, and ther toke schyppynge one Michaelmasse day, in the x. yere of his regne, with Lorde Hastynges, that was the Kinges Chamgerleyne, Lorde Say, with dyverse other knyghtes and squyers, passed and saylede overe the see into Flaunders, to his brother-in-lawe the Duke of Burgeyne (18), for socoure and helpe, &c.

Here is to knowe, that in the begynnynge of the moneth of Octobre, the yere of oure Lorde a M.cccc.lxx., the Bisshoppe of Wynchestere, be the assent of the Duke of Clarence and the Erle of Warwyke, went to the toure of Londone, where Kynge Herry was in presone by Kynge Edwardes commawndement, and there toke hyme from his kepers, whiche was nogt worschipfully arayed as a prince, and nogt so clenly kepte as schuld seme suche a Prynce; thei hade hym oute, and newe arayed hym, and dyde to hyme grete reverens, and brought hyme to the palys of Westmynster, and so he was restorede to the crowne ageyne, and wrott in alle his lettres (19), wryttes, and other recordes, the yere of his regne, Anno regni Regis Henrici Sexti quadragesimo nono, a readempcionis sue regie potestatis primo. Whereof alle his goode lovers were fulle gladde, and the more parte of peple. Nevere the lattere, before that, at he was putt oute of his reame by Kynge Edwarde, all Englonde for more party hatyd hym, and were fulle gladde to have a chounge; and the cause was, the good Duke of Glouceter was put to dethe, and Jhon Holonde, Duke of Excetre, poysond, and that the Duke of Suffolke, the Lorde Say, Danyelle Trevyliane, and other myscheves peple that were aboute the Kynge, were so covetouse towarde them selff, and dyde no force of the Kynges honour, ne of his wele, ne of the comone wele of the londe, where Kynge Herry trusted to them that thei schuld do, and labour in tyme of innocence evere for the comone wele, whiche thei dyde contrary to his wille; and also Fraunce, Normandy, Gasgoyne, and Guyane was lost in his tyme (20). And these were the causes, withe other, that made the peple to gruge ageyns hym, and alle because of his fals lordes, and nevere of hym; and the comone peple seyde, yf thei myghte have another Kynge, he schuld gett alle ageyne and amende alle manere of thynges that was amysse, and brynge the reame of Englond in grete prosperite and reste. Nevere the lattere, whenne Kynge Edwarde iiij{th} regnede, the peple looked after alle the forseide prosperytes and peece, but it came not; but one batayle aftere another, and moche troble and grett losse of goddes amonge the comone peple; as fyrste, the xv. of alle there goodes, and thanne ane hole xv., at yett at every batell to come ferre oute there countreis at ther awne coste; and these and suche othere brought Englonde ryght lowe, and many menne seyd that Kynge Edwarde hade myche blame for hurtynge marchandyse, for in his dayes thei were not in other londes, nore withein Englonde, take in suche reputacyone and credence as thei were afore, &c.

And xxvj. day of Novembre, Kynge Herry callede a parleament at Westmynster, beynge there George, Archebysshoppe of Yorke, Chaunceler of Englonde, whiche [discussed] this proposicion before the Kynge and his Lordes and the comons of that same parleament assemblede, Revertimini ad me filii revertentes, ego vir vestir. Jeremie tercio, etc. (21) And in the moneth of Februarij after, Herry Duke of Excetre, Eadmunde Duke of Somersett, Lorde Jhon of Somersett his brothir, Erle of Ormond, Jasper Erle of Penbroke, brother to the Kynge Herry, and the Erle of Richmonde, with many other knyghtys, and squyres, gentilmen, and yomen, came into Englonde, and entered into ther lordschippys and londe, whiche at the parleament above seide and alle other attaynderes that were made in Kynge Edwardys tyme were anullede, and Kynge Herry was amitted to his crowne and dignite ageyne, and alle his men to there enherytaunce. An thenne was takene the Erle of Worcetre, whiche was arested and areynede befor Sere Jhon Veere, the Erle of Oxenforde, sonne and heyre to the forseide Erle of Oxenforde whiche was behedede (22) at the Toure Hille, as before wrytene; and so the Erle of Worcetre was juged be suche lawe as he dyde to other menne; and, whenne he was dede, his body and his hede was buryede togedyr at the Blacke Frerys in Londone, with alle the honoure and worschyppe that his frendes coude do. Also Quene Elisabeth, Kynge Edwardes wyf, wiche hade welle vetelede and fortifyed the Toure of Londone, when sche herde that here sovereyne and husbonde was fledde, sche went secretly oute of the toure in to sanctuary at Westmynster, with alle here childrene, and sche hir selff was grete withe childe, and was delyverede ther ryght of a sonne that was callede Prynce Edwarde of Englonde; and ther sche abode stylle in grete troble, tylle Kynge Edwarde came in ageyne tylle hire.