Part V: Warkworth’s Chronicle

The Warkworth Chronicle: Part V

Warkworth’s Chronicle

Endotes to Part IV.

 

  1. xliij M{1}. So in MS, but probably a clerical error for xiiij. M{1}.
  2. A playne byyonde Banbury toune. Danesmoor is in the parish of Edgecote, near three hills of unequal size, and in their relative position approaching a triangle; “the spot now called Danesmoor is a small plantation of a few acres, but the name at this period had doubtless much more extended application.” —Baker’s Northhamptonshire, I. 500. This battle is commemorated in “Marwnad Thomas ab Rhosser, arglwydd Herast” of Lewis Glyn Cothi. Three things ought to be remarked, viz. that Herbert, who was beheaded, only made a codicil to his will, and not a new one, as commonly stated; that the battle took place on the Monday–

    “Dyw Llun bu waed a llad:”

    and that Herbert and his fellow captives were executed on the Wednesday–

    “Marchog a las ddyw Merclur,”

    as Gutto Glyn remarks in his poetical language. Cf. MS. Cotton. Otho. B. xiv. fol. 221, v{o}, where an erroneous date is given to the battle, —in quo cœsi multa milia. In MS. Tann. Bodl. 2, fol. 104, v{o}. we find the field called “prelium ad Hegecote, seu Danysmore, prope Banburiam, dictam Banbery-Feld, seu Hegecote-Fyld.” Hearne’s fragment informs us that the land on which the battle was fought belonged to a person named Clarell. In the valuable collection of manuscripts at the seat of W. Ormsby Gore, Esq. are some verses in the Welsh language on this battle; see Thomas Phillipps’s Catalogue of the Manuscripts, p. 1.

  3. The names of the gentylmen that were slayne. See another and more extensive list in Itinerarium Willelmi de Worcestre, p. 120.1, although the major part of this catalogue differs from his, Worcester says that at least 168 of the nobility of Wales fell in this battle, and 1500 men on the English side.
  4. Herry Organ, sonne and heyre, i.e. the son and heir of Henry Organ.
  5. Sere Herry Latymere. Rather Sir Henry Neville, paternally a cousin-german of the Earl of Warwick, and whose mother was Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp, half-sister to the heiress whom the Earl of Warwick married. Leland, in describing the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick, says: “There lyeth buried (as some saye) in the west end of Our Lady Chapell one of the Nevilles, L. Latemer, slayne at Edgecote field by Banbury (as some suppose), but there is neither tombe nor scripture seene. This was Sir Hen. Neville, sonne and heire of George Neville, Lord Latemer. But he was never Lord, for he dyed before his father. This Henry Neville was grandfather to the Lord Latemer now livinge.” The fact of Sir Henry Neville, and of his brother-in-law John Dudley, also slain in the same battle, having been buried in the Beauchamp Chapel, is proved by the will of his mother, Lady Latimer, who on the field of Edgecote lost her only son and the husband of her daughter. Before the close of the same year, (on the 30th Dec.) her husband died insane. Nichols’ Beauchamp Monuments, 4to. p. 40. — J.G.N.
  6. –Sir John Conyers of Hornby, com. Ebor. Kt.
  7. Olivere Audley, squyere. For Audley read Dudley. He was a son of John Lord Dudley, K.G. and brother of that John who was grandfather of John Duke of Northumberland. Beauchamp Monuments, p. 39. — J.G.N.
  8. –” Hic W. Harberde, gravissimus et oppressor et spoliator ecclesiasticorum et aliorum multorum, per annos multos, hunc tandem, justo Dei judicio pro suis sceleribus et nequiciis, recepit mercedem. Die Sabbati proximo ante assumpcionem beatissme semper Virginis Marie, captus est Dominus de Rywaus, cum domino Johanne filio suo, et, juxta castrum de Kelingworthe, pariter decollati sunt.” –MS. Arundel, Coll. Arm. fol. 171 r{o}.
  9. A village bysyde Northampton. Stowe calls this village Ulney; that is, Onley, a market-town in Buckinghamshire, but within twelve miles of Northampton. — J.G.N.
  10. A generalle pardone. On the 27th of October, Henry Percy of Northumberlond, who had been confined to the Tower, under Lord Dudley, Constable, took the oaths of allegiance and was released. —Fœdera, XI. 649.
  11. –I here insert a very curious and valuable document from a MS. Roll in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, No. 1160, m. 2, d{o}, et 1, d{o}.
    The duc of Clarence, th’archebissoppe of Yorke, and th’erle of Warwyk.

    “Right trusty and welbelovid, we grete you welle. And welle ye witte that the Kyng oure soveregne lordys true subgettes of diverse partyes of this his realme of Englond have delivered to us certeyn billis of Articles, whiche we suppose that ye have in thoos parties, rememberynge in the same the disceyvabille covetous rule and gydynge of certeyne ceducious persones; that is to say, the Lord Ryvers, the Duchesse of Bedford his wyf, Ser William Herbert, Erle of Penbroke, Humfrey Stafford, Erle of Devenshire, the Lordis Scalis and Audeley, Ser John Wydevile, and this brethern, Ser John Fogge, and other of theyre myschevous rule opinion and assent, wheche have caused oure seid sovereyn Lord and his seid realme to falle in grete poverte of myserie, disturbynge the mynystracion of the lawes, only entendyng to thaire owen promocion and enrichyng. The seid trewe subgettis with pitevous lamentacion callyng uppon us and other lordes to be meanes to oure seid sovereyne Lord for a remedy and reformacion; werfore we, thenkyng the peticioun comprised in the seid articles resonabyll and profitable for the honoure and profite of oure seid soveryn Lord and the comune welle of alle this his realme, fully purposed with other lordis to shewe the same to his good grace, desiryng and pray you to dispose and arredie you to accompayneye us thedir, with as many persones defensabyly arrayede as y can make, lettyng you wete that by Goddis grace we entende to be at Caunterbury uppon Sonday next comyng. Wretyn undre our signettis and signe manuell the xij{th} day of Juyll, A{o} 1469.
    In three the next articles undrewretin are comprisid and specified the occasions and verry causes of the grete inconveniencis and mischeves that fall in this lond in the dayes of Kyng Edward the ij{de}. Kyng Ric’ the ij{de}, and Kyng Henry the vj{te}, to the distruccion of them, And to the gret hurt and empoverysshyng of this lond.
    “First, where the seid Kynges estraingid the gret lordis of theyre blood from thaire secrete Councelle, And not avised by them; And takyng abowte them other not of thaire blood, and enclynyng only to theire counselle, rule and advise, the wheche persones take not respect ne consideracion to the wele of the seid princes, ne to the comonwele of this lond, but only to theire singuler lucour and enrichyng of themself and theire bloode, as welle in theire greet possessions as in goodis; by the wheche the seid princes were so enpoverysshed that they hadde not sufficient of lyvelode ne of goodis, wherby they myght kepe and mayntene theire honorable estate and ordinarie charges withynne this realme.
    “Also the seid seducious persones, not willing to leve the possesions that they hadde, caused the seid princes to lay suche imposicions and charges as welle by way of untrue appecementes to whom they owed evill wille unto, as by dymes, taxis and prestis noblis and other inordinat charges uppon theire subjettes and commons, to the grete grugge and enpoveryssyng of them wheche caused alle the people of this lond to grugge.
    “And also the seid sedusious persones by theyre mayntenaunces, where they have rule, wold not suffre the lawes to be executed, but where they owe favour moved the seid princes to the same; by the wheche there were no lawes atte that tyme deuly ministred, ne putt in execucion, wheche caused gret murdres, roberyes, rapes, oppressions, and extorcions, as well by themself, as by theyre gret mayntenaunces of them to be doon, to the gret grugge of all this lande.
    “Hit is so that where the kyng of oure sovereigne lorde hathe hadde as gret lyvelode and possessions as evyr had kyng of Engelond; that is to say, the lyvelode of the Crowne, Principalite of Wales, Duche of Lancastre, Duche of Cornwelle, Duche of Yorke, the Erldome of Chestre, the Erldome of Marche, the Lordeschippe of Irlond, and other, with grete forfaytis, besyde Tunage and Poundage of alle this londe, grauntyd only to the kepynge of the see. The lorde Revers, the Duchesse of Bedford his wyf, and thayre sonnes, Ser William Harbert, Earle of Pembroke, and Humfrey Stafford, Erle of Devonshire, the Lord of Audely, and Ser John Fogge, and other of thayre myschevous assent and oppinion, whiche have advised and causid oure seid sovereigne lord to geve of the seyd lyvelode and possessions to them above theire disertis and degrees, So that he may nat lyf honarably and mayntene his estate and charges ordinarie withinne this lond.
    “And also the seid sedusious persones next before expressid, not willyng to leve suche large possessions and goodis as they have of oure seid sovereigne lordis gyfte, have, by subtile and discevable ymaginacions, movid and causid oure sovereyne lord to chaunge his most ryche coyne, and mynysshed his most royalle household, to the gret appeyeyng of his estate, and the comonwele of this londe.
    “Also the seid seducious persones, continuyng in theire most deseyvable and covetous disposiscion, have causid oure seid soverayne lord to aske and charge us his trewe comons and subgettis wyth suche gret imposicions and inordinate charges, as by meanes of borowyng withoute payment, takyng goodes of executours of rich men, taxis, dymes, and preestis noblis; takyng gret goodis for his household without payment, impechementes of treasounes to whom they owe any eville will; So that ther can be no man of worshippe or richesse, other spitituelle or temporelle, knyghtis, squiers, marchauntes, or any other honest persone, in surete of his lyf, lyvelode, or goodis, where the seid seducious persones, or any of them owe any malice or eville wille, to the grete drede and importabylle charges, and the utter emporverysshyng of us his treue Commons and subjettes, And to the gret enrychyng of themself, the premisses amountynge to ccM{1}. markes [this yere] and more. “Also the seid seducious persones have caused our seid sovereygne lord to spende the goodis of oure holy fadir [the pope], the wheche were yevyn him for defence of Cristen feyth of many goodely disposyd people of this lond, without repayent of oure seid holy fadir, for the wheche cause this lond stondith in juberdie of Enterdcytynge.
    “Also the seid sedusious persones, be theyre mayntenaunces in the cuntreyes where they dwelt or where they here rule, will not suffre the Kynges lawes to be executyd uppon whom they owyd favere unto, And also movid oure seid sovereyne lord to the same; by the wheche the lawes be not duly mynystered, ne put in execucion; by the wheche gret murdre, robbres, rapes, oppressions, and extorcions, as well be them, as by thayre gret mayntenaunces of theire servauntes, to us daly done and remayne unpunysshed, to the gret hurt and grugge of alle this londe.
    “Also the seid seducious persones hath causid oure seid soverayne lord to estrainge the true lordis of his blood from his secrete Councelle, to th’entent that they myghte atteyne and brenge abought theyre fals and dysceyvable purpos in premisses aforeseid, to the gret enrychynge of themself, And to the gret hurt and poverte of oure seid sovereyne lorde, and to alle us his trewe subjettis and commons of this londe.”
    “These undrewryten are the peticions of us treue and feythefulle subjettes and commons of this lond for the gret wele and surete of the Kyng oure soverigne lord and his heires, and the commonwele of this lond, evir to be contynued. Aftir humble praying of trewe lordis, spirituelle and temporelle, to yeve assistence and aid in thys oure true and goodely desyres; For we take God to record we entende but only for the wele and surete of the Kyng oure sovereigne lord, And the common-wele of this lond.
    “First, that the seid seducious persones abovenamed, wheche by theire subtile and malicious meanes have causyd oure said sovereyn lord to estrainge his goode grace from the Councelle of the nobile and trewe lordis of his blood, moved hym to breke hys lawes and statutis, mynysshed his lyvelode and housold, chaungyng his most richest coyne, and chargyng this lond with suche gret and inordinat imposicions, as is above expressid; to the grete appeirment of his most Royalle estate, and enpoverisshyng of hym and alle his true Commons and subjettis, and only to the enrichynge of themself; may be punysshed accordyng to theire werkes and untrouthes, So that all other hereaftir shall take ensample by thayme.
    “Also in eschewyng the occasions and causes of the gret inconveniencis and myschevis that by the same hathe fallen in the Kynges dayes, above expressid, as well uppon themself, as uppon this lond, And that in tymes hereaftir myghte falle; We, the Kyngis true and feithfulle Commons and subjettes of this lond, mekely besechen his good grace that hit well lyke hym for the gret wele of hymself, his heires, and the common-wele of us his true subjettes and Commons, for evyr to be continued by the advyse and auctorite of his lordis spirituelle and temporalle, to appoynte, ordeyne, and stablish for evyr to be hadde suche a sufficiente of lyvelode and possescions, by the whiche he and alle his heires aftir hym may mayntene and kepe theire most honorable estate, withe alle other ordinarie charges necessarye to be hadde in this lond. So that he nor noon of his heires, hereafter, of necessite, nede to charge and ley uppon his true Commons and subjettes suche gret imposicions as before is expressid; Unlesse that it were for the gret and urgent causes concernynge as well the wellthe of us, as of oure seid sovereyne lord; Accordyng to the promyse that he made in his last parliament, openly wyth his owen mouthe unto us.
    “Also to be establisshid be the seid auctorite, that yf any persone, of what estate or degree that he be, aftir the seid stablisshement so ordeyned, and made, (except the Kynges issue and his brethren), presume to take uppon them to aske or take possessions of any of the lyvelode so appoyntyd, that, by the seid auctoriite, he be taken and reputyd as he that wold mynysshe and apeire the royalle estate of his sovereyn lord, and commonwele of this lond. And went pardon so to be punysshed.
    “Also that the revenues of Tounage and Poundage may be employed in the kepyng of the see as it was graunted, and too non other use, for the safetie of entrecourse of merchaundizes, to gret enrichyng of this lond, and also for the defence of the enemyes.
    “Also that the lawes and the statutis made in the dayes of youre noble progenitours kyng Edward the iij{de}, sethen for the concernyng and kepyng of this lond in good hele and peas, as welle Wales as Engelond, be duly kept, observid, and executyd, for the conservacion of us youre trewe commons and subjettes in peas, and commonwele of this oure lond.”
  12. And in the x. yere. It may be remarked that the regnal years of Edward IV. commence on the fourth of March, “quo die Rex Edwardus iiij{tus}. incepit regnare;” –MS. Magnus Rotulus Pipæ, 1 Edw. IV, com. Cornub. Cf. MS. Bib. Geo. III. Mus. Brit. 52. fol. 33, r{o}.
  13. The Lorde Welles his sonne. See the Excerpta Historica, p. 282, for the confession of Sir Robert Welles, which throws very considerable light on this history. It appears that the Duke of Clarence took a much more active part in the conspiracy than is generally supposed; that the motive which actuated the multitude was chiefly the fear of the King’s vengeance; that a servant of Clarence’s was in the battle, and afforded Welles considerable assistance; that when Lord Welles went to London pursuant to the King’s commands, he desired his son, in the event of his hearing that he was in danger, to hasten to his assistance with as many followers as possible; that the real object of the rebellion was to place the crown on Clarence’s head; that both Clarence and Warwick had, for some time, been urging Lord Welles, and his son, to continue firm in their cause.
    The following documents are given from the Close Rolls of 10 Edw. IV. (m. 8. dorso.) and are valuable illustrations of the history of this insurrection.
    “De proclamationibus faciendis.–Rex vicecomiti Warr’ et Leicestr’ salutem. Præcipimus tibi firmiter injungentes, quod statim, post receptionem præsentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam, tuam tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias, in hæc verba–
    “For as moche as hit hath plesyd God, of his godeness and grace, to send to our soveraigne Lord the victorye of his Rebelles and Traitours of his shire of Lincolne, late assembled in grete nombre, leveyny werre ayenst his Highness, contrary to their liegeaunce and duete; Oure said Soveraigne Lord, therefore, not willing his sibjettis, other than such as now attend upon his most Royall Person, to be putte to charge, labour, and businesse, by vertue of this commissions of array, and other writing, late addressed to dyvers shires, citees, and townes, for the resistens of the malicious and traiterous purpose of the said Rebelles, wolle, and in the most straitest wise chargeth, that noon of his subjettes presume, ne take uppon hym, to ryse, ne make any assemble or gadering, by reason of any of the seid commissions or writings, ne be moeving, steryng, writing, or commaundement made, or hereafter be made, by any persone or persones of what estate, degree or condition sooever he be of, lesse than hit bee by the Kinges commission, Privie Seale, or writyng under his signet, of new to be made aftir this the xiij. day of Marche. And if any persone or persones presume, or take uppon theym or hym, to doe the contrary hereof, Our Said Soveraigne Lord woll repute and take hym and them soo doying as his enemyes and Rebelles, and wool procede to their lawfull Punycion in the most streitest wise, according to his Lawes and Statutes in such case ordeyned.
    “Et hoc nullatenus omittas. Teste Rege apud Stamford xiij.{o} die Martii.
    “PER IPSUM REGEM.

    (Here follow the names of the counties.)

    De proclamationibus faciendis. — Rex vicecomiti Eborum salutem. Præcipimus tibi, quod statim post receptionem presentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam tuam, tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias in hæc verba–
    “Howebeit that the King our Soveraine Lord graunted unto Georg Duc of Clarence, and Richard Erle of Warwyk, his pardon generall of all offences committed and doon ayenst him, afore the fest of Christmasse last passed, trusting thereby to have caused theym to have shewed unto him their naturall love, ligeaunce, and duetie, and to have assisted his Highness, as well in subdueing insurrections and rebellions late made ayenst him in the countie of Lincolne, as in all other things concerning the suertie of his persone; and, in trust that they soo wold have done according to their promisses to hym made, his said Highness auctorized theym by his commision undre his grete seal to assemble his subgetts in certain shires, and theym to have brought to his said Highnes, to the entent aforesaid; yet the said Duc and Erle, unnaturally, unkindly, and untruly intending his destruction and the subversion of his reaume, and the common wele of the same, made to make the said Duke King of this his said Reaume, ayenst Gods law, mannes law, and all reason and conscience, dissimiled with his seid Highness, and, under colour thereof, falsly and traiterously provoked and stured, as well by their writings as otherwise, Sir Robert Welles, late calling himselfe Great Capitayne of the Commons in the seid shire of Lincolne, to continue the said insurrections and rebellions, and to levee warre ayenst hym, as they, by the same, soe dyd with banners displayed, avauncing theymselfe in plain bataylle, unto the time his said Highnesse, by the help of God, put them to flight; wherein the said Duc and Erle promitted to the said Sir Robert and Commons to have yeven them their assistences to the uttermost of their powers, and soo wolde have done, if God ne had yeven unto hym the said victorie, as the same Sir Robert Welles, Sir Thomas de la Laund, Richard Wareyn, and other have openly confessed and shewed before his seid Highnes, the Lordes of his blood, and the multitude of his subgettis attending upon hym in his host at this tyme; which Sir Robert Welles, and the said other pety capitaynes, affirmed to be true at their dethes, uncompelled, unstirred, or undesired soo to doo; and as by the confession of the said Robert Welles, made under his writing and signe manuelle, it apperith. And after that the said Duc and Erle, understanding and seing that this ther seid labours wold not serve to the perfourmyng of their fals and traiterous purpose afore declared, laboured by their writings and messages sent into Yorkeshire into divers persons there, theym straitly charging to doo make open proclamations in their owne names, without making mention of his seid Highnes, that ll maner men upon peyn of deth shuld come unto theym and yeve theym their assistences in resisting of hym; whereupon his seid Highnes sent unto the said Duc and Erle, by Garter King of Armes, summonicion and warnyng of their said accusations undre his privie seal, straitly charging theym to come unto his said Highnes, resonably accompanyed according to their astates and degrees, to answer unto their said accusations; which to doo they presumptuously refused, and withdrew themself, and fled with their felaship into Lancashire; soo as his said Highnes with his host for lak of vitaill might not follow them, to the intent that they might gadre his subgettes in gretter nombre, and to be able to performe their said fals and traiterous purpose and entent; for the which causes they have deserved to be published as fals traitours and rebelles, and to have the uttermost punition of the law; yet, nathelesse, our said Soveraigne Lord considering the nighness of blood that they be of unto him, and the tendre love which he hath afore time borne to theym, were therefore loth to lese theym, if they wold submitt theym to his grace, and put hym in suertie of their good demeaning hereafter.
    “Wherefore our said Sovereigne Lord woll, and in the most straitest wyse chargeth, the said Duc and Erle, that they, in their persones, come in humble and obeysant wyse, and appier afore his Highnes the xxviij. day of this present month of March, Wednesday next, or afore, wheresoever he than shall be, to answer unto the said accusations; which if they woll soo doo, and come declare theymselfe nat guilty, his Highnes woll be thereof right glad, and have hem in his grace and favor; and if they refuse thus to doo, then our said Soveraigne Lord reputeth, taketh, and declareth thaym as his rebelles and traitoures, willing and straitly charging all his subgetts to doo the same, and that noon of his subgetts from that time forth receive theym, ne eyther of theym ayd, favour, or assist with mete, drink, ne money, or otherwise, ne noon other persone which, after the said Duc and Erle have refused to come to our said Soverain Lord as is aforesaid, abydeth with theym, or aydeth theym, or assisteth in any wise; but that every of the King’s subgetts putte hem in effectuell devir to take the said Duc and Erle, and all other soo abyding with theym, or aiding or assisting theym, as is abovesaid, and theym suerly bring to his Highnes uppon peyn of deth; And he that taketh and bringeth the said Duc or Erle shall have for his reward, to hym and his heires, an C. li. worth of his lond of yerely value, or M{1}. li. in redy money, at his election; and for a knyght xx. li. worth of his lond, or C. marc in money; and for a squyer x. li. worth of his lond, or xl. li. in money; and over that cause our said soveraigne Lord to have hym and theym soo doing in the more tendre favour of his good grace at all tymes hereafter.
    “Et hoc sub periculo incumbenti nullatenus omittas. Teste Rege apud Eborum xxiiij{o} die Martii.
    “PER IPSUM REGEM.

    “Consimilia brevia diriguntur vicecomitibus in Com’ subscriptis sub data predicta, videlicet,
    “Majori et vicecomitibus Civitatis London’.” (&c.)
    “Rex Vicecomiti Eborum Salutem. Præcipimus tibi firmiter injungentes, quod, statim post receptionem præsentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam tuam, tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias, in hæc verba–
    “Howbeit that the King our Soveraigne Lord graunted unto Georg Duke of Clarence, and Richard Earl of Warrewyk, his pardon generall of all offences committed and doone ayenst him, afore the fest of Cristenmasse last past; trusting thereby to have caused theym to have shewed unto hym theyr naturall love, ligeaunce, and duetee, and to have assisted his Highnesse, as well in subdueing insurrections and rebellyons late made ayenst him in the Counte of Lincolne, as in all other things concerning the suertee of his persone; and in trust that they wold soo have done according to their promisses to hym made, his said Highnesse auctorised theym, by his commission under his great seall, to assemble his subgietts in certain shires, and them to have brought unto his said Highnesse, to th’entent aforesaid; yet the said Duke and Erle unnaturally, unkindely, and untruly entending his destruction, and the subversion of his reaume, and the commonwele of the same, and to make the seid Duke King of this his said Reaume, ayenst God’s lawe, mannes lawe, all reason and conscience, dissimiled with his said Highness; and under colour thereof, falsly and traiterously provoked, laboured, and stured, as well by their writings as otherwise, Sir Roert Welles, late calling himselfe Grete Capitayne of the commons of the said Shire of Lincolne, to continue the said insurrections and rebellions, and to levee werre ayenst him, as they by the same soo did, and with banners displayed, avauncing theymselfe in playn bataille, unto the time his said Highness, by the help of God, put theym to flyght; wherein the said Duke and Erle promytted to the said Sir Robert and Commons to have yeven theym their assistences to the uttermost of their powers, and soo wold have doone, yf God ne had yeven unto hym the said victorye, as the same Sir Robert Welles, Sir Thomas de la Laund, Richard Waryng, and other, have openly confessed and shewed before his said Highness, the Lordes of his blode, and the multitude of his subgietts attending upon him in his host at this time; which Sir Robert Welles, and the other pety Captaynes, affermed to be true at their dethes, uncompelled, unstured, or undersired soo to doe; and as by the confession of the said Sir Robert Wells, made under his writyng and sign manuell, it appereth; and after the said Duke and Erle, understanding and seing that this ther said labours wold not serve in the performing of their fals and traiterous purpose, afore declared, laboured, by their writings and messages sent into Yorkeshire to dyvers persones there, theym streitly charging to doo make open proclamations in their owne names, withou mention makeing of his said Highness, that all manner of men, uppon peyn of deth, should come unto theym, and yeve theym their assistence in resisting of him; whereupon his said Highness sent unto the said Duke and Erle, by Garter Kyng of Armes, summonition and warnyng of their said accusations undre his privie seal, straitly charging theym to come unto his said Highness resonably accompanyed, according to their astates and degrees, to answere to their said accusations; which to doo they presumptuously refused, and withdrewe themselfe, and fled with their felaship into Lancashire, soo as his said Highness with his host, for lake of vitayl, might not follow theym, to th’entent that they might gather his subgetts in greter noumbre, and to be hable to perfourme their said fals and trayterous purpose and entent; ffor which causes they have deserved to be published as fals traitours and rebells, and to have the uttermost punytion of the lawe. Yet nathelesse our said soveraigne Lord considered the nyghnesse of blode which they be unto him, and the tender love which he hath afore borne to theym, therefore was loth to have lost theym, yf they would have submitted theym to his grace, and to have put hym in suertee of their good beryng hereafter; wherefore he sent his writts of proclamation unto dyvers open places, straitly charging theym to have come and appered in their persones afore his Highness in humble and obeysaunt wyse, the xxviij{th} of this present month of Marche or before, to have aunswered unto the said accusations, shewing by the same that yf they soo would have done, and could have declared theymselfe not guilty, his Highness would have be therewith right gladd, and have had theym in his grace and favour, and that, though they soo cowde not have doon, yet his Highness would have have forgeten their seid nighness of blode, ne the love and favour he aforetime bare to theym, but wold have ministred to theym ryghtwyssely his lawes with favour and pitee schewyng; which they did not, but obstinately refused soo to doo, and dayly aftir withdrew theymself more and more from his Highness; and after the said proclamations, made as before, it hath be evidently shewed by open confessions made at his citee of Yorke, afore our said Soveraigne and his Lordes than there being with hym, by dyvers persones of grete reputation, that the seid Duke and Erle intended the finall destruction of his most royall persone, and the subversion of this his reaume, and the commonwele of the same, which confessions the said persones have affirmed by their solempne othes, and made upon receyving of the blessed sacrament, to bee faithfull and true; wherefore, the præmisses considered, and the grete obstinacy which they shewed hemself to be of, and yet doo contrarye to their ligeaunce, faith, and duetee, our said soveraigne Lord, to the example of all other like offenders, reputeth, taketh, and declareth the said Duke and Erle as his Rebelles and Traytours, willing and straitly charging all his subgetts to doo the same; and that noon of his said subgetts from hensforth receyve theym, ne eyther of theym, ayd, favour, or assist with mete, drynke, or money, or otherwise; nor noo other persone beying with, or adhering to them, or either of theym, but that every of his said subgetts putt hem in effectuell devoyr to take the said Duke and Erle, and the seid persones soe being with hem, or adhering to theym, or either of theym, and hem surely bring to the King, upon peyn of dethh, and forfaiture of all that they may forfait; and he that soo doth shall have for his reward of either theym C. li. worth of land by yere to him, and to his heires, or a M{1}. li. in redy money at his election.
    “Et hoc nullatenus omittas. Teste meipso apud Notingham xxxj{o} die Martii.
    “PER IPSUM REGEM.”

    (Here follow the names of counties.)

    (From Madox’s transcripts in the British Museum. MS. Add. 4614.)
  14. Wove. So in MS. for vowe.
  15. Kynge Henry schuld rejoyse the kyngdome. “On halmesse evyn, abowt thre after noyne, comyn into the Comowne Howus, the Lordys spiritual and temporal, excepte the Kyng, the Duk of York, and hys sonys; and the Chawnceler reherset the debate had bytwyn owre soveren Lord the Kyng and the Duk of York upon the tytelys of Inglond, Fraunce, and the Lordschep of Erlond, wyche mater was debat, arguet, and disputet by the seyd lordes spiritual and temporal byfore owre soveren Lord and the Duk of York longe and diverse tymys. And at the last, by gret avyce and deliberacion, and by the assent of owre soveryn Lord and the Duk of York, and alle the lordes spiritual and temporal ther assemelyd by vertu of thys present parlement, assentyt agreyt, and acordyt, that owre sovereyne Lord the Kyng schal pessabylly and quyetly rejoys and possesse the crowne of Inglond and of Fraunce and the Lordchip of Irlond, with all hys preemynences, prerogatyves, and liberteys duryng hys lyf. And that after hys desese the coroun, etc. schal remayne to Rychard Duk of York, as the rythe inheryt to hym, and to hys issue, prayng and desyring ther the comownes of Inglond, be vertu of thys present parlement assemylet, to comyne the seyd mater, and to gyff therto her assent. The wyche comyns, after the mater debatet, comynt, grawntyt, and assentyt to the forseyd presmisses. And ferthermore was granted and assentyt, that the seyd Duk of York, the Erl of March, and of Rutlond, schul be sworne that they schuld not compas ne conspyrenne the kynges deth ne hys hurt duryng hys lyf. Ferthermore the foreseyd Duk schulde be had, take, and reportyt as eyr apparent prince and ryth inheryter to the crowne aboveseyd. Ferthermore for to be had and take tresoun to ymagyne or compas the deth or hurt of the seyd Duk, wythe othyr prerogatyves as long to the prince and eyr parawnt. And fferthermore the seyd Duk and hys sonys schul have of the Kyng yerely x.M{1}. marces, that is to sey, to hemself v. M{1}., to the Erl of Marche iijM{1}., the Erl of Rutlond ijM{1}. marces. And alle these matyres agreyd, assentyt, and inactyt by the auctorite of thys present parlement. And ferthermore, the statutes mad in the tyme of Kyng Herry the fowrth, wherby the croune was curtaylet to hys issu male, utterly annullyd and everyth, wyth alle other statutes and grantys mad by the seyd Kynges days, Kyng Herry the V. and Kyng Herry the vj{te}, in the infforsyng of the tytel of Kyng Herry the fourth in general.” –Rot. Harl. C. 7, Membr. 4, dorso.
    The following document, from Chart. Antiq. Cotton. XVII. 11, is exceeding curious, and I take the opportunity of insterting it here.
    Jhesus. Maria. Johanes.

    ….the most nobylle and Crysten prynce, our most dradde soverayne Lorde Kynge Hary the syxte, verrey true undoutyde Kynge of Englonde and of Fraunce, nowe beynge in the hondys of hys rebellys and gret en[e]my, Edwarde, late Erl of Marche, usurpur, oppressour, and distroyer of oure seyde Soverayn Lorde, and of the nobylle blode of the reme of Englonde, and of the trewe commenes of the same, by hys myschevus and inordinate newe founden lawes and ordenaunces inconvenieant, to the uttyrmoste destruccion of the goode commenes of the seyde reme of Englonde; yf yt so schulde contenne ffor the reformacion wherof, in especialle for the comenwelle of alle the seyde reme, the rygt hyghe and mygty Prynce George Duke [of] Clarens, Jasper Erl of Pembroke, Richarde Erl of Warewyke, and Johnne Erl of Oxenforde, as verrey and trewe feygtfulle cosyns, subgettes, and liege men to oure seyde soveraine Lorde Kynge Harry syxt, by sufficiante autorite commysyd unto them in thys behalfe, be the hole voyse and assent of the moste nobylle pryncesse Margaret, Quene of Englonde, and the Rygt Hyge and mygty Prynce Edwarde, atte thys tyme beyng Quene,* into thys reme to putte theme in ther moste uttermoste devers to dylyver oure seyd Sopheraine Lord oute of hys grete captivitie, and daungere of hys enmyes, unto hys liberte, and by the grace of Gode be rest hym in his rialle estate, and crowne of thys hys seyd reme of Englond, and reforme ….. and amende alle the grete myschevus oppressions, and alle odyr inordinate abusions, nowe raynynge in the seyde reme, to the perpetualle pese, prosperyte, to the comene welfare of thys reme. Also ytt ys fully concludyd and grauntyde that alle mail men within the reme of Englonde, of whatt estat, degre, condicion that they be of, be fully pardonede of alle maner of tresoun or trespace imagenyd or done, in eny maner of wyse contrary to ther legeyns, agayne oure soveraine Lorde the Kynge, the Quene, and my Lorde the prynce, before the day of comynge and entre of the sayde Duke and Erles in thys sayde reme; so that they putt them to ther uttermost dever, and att thys tyme drawe them to the compeny of the seyde Duke and Erles, to helpe and to fortefy theme in ther purpose and jorney; excepte suche persons as be capitalle enmyes to oure seyde soferaine Lorde, withowte punyschement of the whyche god pece and prosperitie of theys reme cannatte be had; and excepte alle suche as atte thys tyme make any rescistens ageyns the seyde Duke and Erlys, or eny of theme, or of ther compeny. Also the sayde Duke and Erlys, in the name and behalfe of oure seyde soferaine Lorde Kynge Harry the syxt, chargyne and commawndyne that alle maner of men, that be betwen xvj. yeres and lx(ti}., incontinently and immediatly aftyr thys proclamacion made, be redy, in ther best aray defensabell, to attende and awayte upponne the sayde Duke and Erlys, to aschyst theme in ther jorney, to the entente afore rehercyd, upponne payne of dethe and forfiture of alle that they [may forfeyte], withinne the reme of Englond; excepte suche persons as be visette with syknesse, or with suche noune poure that they may not go.”
    *This sentence is transposed in the document.
  16. Inhabytauntes. So in MS. for inheritauances.
  17. –The Harl. MS. 7353, is a most curious roll on vellum, containing pictures on one side representing parts of scripture history, and on the other assumed similar transactions in the life of Edward IV. We have, I. The King on his throne. II. The King encouraging his soldiers. III. The King with the triple sun shining upon him through three golden crowns, and saying “Domine! quid vis me facere?” IV. Pardoning Henry after the battle of Northampton. V. Setting sail for Calais. At the bottom is a genealogical tree, with portraits of all the members of the houses of York and Lancaster, very fantastically arranged.
  18. Duke of Burgeyne. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy married Edward’s sister on the 18th of June, 1467. It was to this marriage that Edward owed his preservation abroad, and the final recovery of his kingdom. An account of the marriage, with the reception of the Princess in Flanders, may be seen in MS. Cotton. Nero, C. ix. Cf. Cart. Antiq. Mus. Brit. XI. 54.
  19. Wrott in alle his lettres. Cf. MS. Harl. 7, fol. 64, r{o}; Sir Harris Nicolas’s Chronology of History, p. 304; Cart. Antiq. Mus. Brit. XXII. 42.
  20. Was lost in his tyme. This was a never-failing source of rebuke against Henry; so Ocland says–

    “Quippe erat Henricus quintus, dux strenuus olim,
    Mortuus hinc damni gravior causa atque doloris.”

    Anglorum prælia. Edit. 1582. Edward, in one of his earlier proclamations, says, “HE that directeth the hertes of all Princes,” hath “Putte in oure remembraunce the lamentable state and rayne of this reaume of Englond, and the losse of th’obeissaunce of the reaume of Fraunce, and Duchies of Guyenne, and Normandie, and Anjou.” Rot. Claus. 1 Edw. IV. m. 38, dorso.

  21. Revertimini, &c. This is perhaps quoted from memory, for the reading in the Latin Vulgate is Convertimini filii reverentes, dicit Dominus, quia ego vir vester; which is thus translated, –“Turn, O backsliding children, saith the Lord, for I am married to you;” Jeremiah, iii. 14. It is almost unnecessary to remark that this is the sermon with which it was usual to preface the opening of a parliament; the present on was most admirably fitted for the occasion.
  22. Was behedede. “His diebus captus est ille trux carnifex, et hominum decollator horridus, Comes de Wacester, et in Turri Londonie incarceratus, et in breve prope dictam turrim decapitatus, et apud Fratres Predicatores, juxta Ludgate, obscure sepultus.” — MS. Arundel, Coll. Arm. 5, fol. 171, v{o}. This coming from a partizan of the same side with the Earl, at a period when party politics necessarily ran so high, is strikingly conclusive of that nobleman’s character. Cf. Chron. p. 9, l.13-21.