Part XXII.1: Index and Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Backs through Cheyney, John.

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Index & Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Backs through Cheyney, John.

  • Backs (bakkes): Parts of the skins so called.
  • Bagges of leder: Bags of leather.
  • Bags of fustian: See FUSTIANS.
  • Barehide: See this word in the Index & Notes to Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • Barge, king’s, the master of the,: Some remarks on the royal barges will be found in the Index & Notes to Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York. These entries relate to the equipment of the master and rowers of the barge which was to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy. They wore cloth jackets of blue and murrey, each jacket being ornamented with two small roses, and the master also wore a gown of black chamlet.
  • Bargemen, jackets for the king’s: See final entry in “Gifts Disbursed Continued,” Part XXI.
  • Base of the king’s jackets,: See the 7th entry under “For the Office of the Roobes…,” Part XIX.
  • Batillage: Batillage appears to be nearly synonimous with the word to which it is joined — boat hire, from batellus, a little boat. In the “Liber Quotidianus Garderobe, 28th Edward I.,” is the following entry. To Dom John de Langeford, among other payments, “Una cum batellagio ejusdem Domini Johannis inter Westmoñ. et London.” — p. 47. Batellus occurs often in those accounts, pp. 54, 72, and 272, &c. Libera battella, a free boat, occurs in the Plac. in Itin. at Chester, 14th Henry VII. See Blount’s Glossary.
  • Baudkins (bawdekyns), — of silk,: A rich cloth, now called brocade. The name is said to have been derived from Baldacus, from Babylon, whence it was originally brought. Blount. By statute 12th and 14th Edward IV., it was enacted, that all cloths of gold, cloths of silver, of bawdekyn velvet, damask, satin, sarcenet, tartaron, chamelet, and every other cloth of silk made beyond the sea, and then being in the kingdom, and offered for sale, should be sealed with the seals of the collectors of the subsidy of poundage and tonnage. — Rot. Parl. vi., 155.
  • Baudwyn, Piers: Stationer.
  • Baynard’s Castle: See the note in the Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • Bedding: Trancsriber’s Note. References throughout to various necessities for the bed, i.e., sheets, footsheets, headsheets, fustians, hangings & curtains &c.
  • Bedmakers: Transcriber’s Note. Although Nicolas gives no explanation, accoutrements for the elaborate medieval beds were apparently made both by persons working in the Great Wardrobe and by independent craftsmen.
  • Beds, yeoman of the,: Peter Wraton. — office of the, See Part XIX. — for the making of various kinds, See BEDMAKERS.
  • Beds: See entries in Part XVIII under “The Totall Empcion and Bying of Stuff…”
  • Berkeley, William: Esquire of the king’s body, who was protected from the effect of the act of resumption, 22nd Edward IV., 1482. — Rot. Parl. vi., 200. He was sent to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy, having four men to attend upon him, and was present at Edward IV’s funeral. — Archæologia i., 352.
  • Besteney, John: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Bible Historical (Historial): See BOOKS.
  • Bible, the: See BOOKS.
  • Blankets: See BEDDING.
  • Boat hire, for: See BATILLAGE.
  • Bogy, — legs and shanks: Budge is described as lambs fur, but it was sometimes used for another kind of fur. Palsgrave translates “bouge furre, romenis peaux de Lombardie.” In the statute 37 Edward III., the word “bugee” was used to describe fur generally. “Ne nul manere de Pellure ou de bugee, mes soulment d’aignel, conil, chat, et gopil.” — Rot. Parl. ii., pp. 278, 281. But in the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward I, 1301, the word is thus used, “Pro pellura diversa fururis et capuciis tam de Bog’ quam de agnis, &c.,” p. 354. John Colet, in his will in 1519, bequeathed his “best coat of chamlet furred with black bogys.”
  • Bolsters:See BEDDING.
  • Bolts: See Part XVIII, first entry under “Reparacon Maade and Doon in Diverse Tenementes…”
  • Bolyons: Bolions appear to have been a smaller sort of button used as fastenings of books, &c.; they were made of copper and gilded, and cost about eight pence each. Palsgrave translates “bullion of a woman’s girdle” by “close.” — for gilding old,: See Part XVII, final entry under “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Bonnets: See note on “bonnets” in the Index & Notes to Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • Books; the king’s, removed and garnished &c; –silk laces and tassels of, and garnishing; –for binding: The books, the titles of which are mentioned are Titus Livius, The Holy Trinity, Froissart, The Bible, The Government of Kings and Princes, La Fortresse de Foy, The Book of Josehpus and The Bible Historial.
    The Government of Kings and Princes was, probably, a translation of Ægidius Romanus de Regimine Principum, which is conjectured by Weston to have been translated into English by John Trevisa. A MS. entitled Regime des Princes par Gilles de Rome, a Monseigneurs fils du Roy Philipe le Bel, was in the library of Galway Mills, Esq., in 1800, which was stated to have been translated from the Latin of Ægidiuu Romanus into French verse by Henri de Gauché. The volume allued to in these Accounts was apparently in French.
    Foissard was of course Froissart’s Chronicles, and was probably highly illuminated. Perhaps the most beautifully illuminated copy in existence is in the Harleian collection marked Nos. 4379, 4380.
    Several copies of Le Bible Historiaux or Les Hystoires Escolastres, are among the Royal MSS. in the British Museum marked 19 D ii. iii. iv. v., and 15 D iii. See the Printed Catalogue. One of them has the following paragraph written in it,
    “Cest livre fust pris ove le Roy de France a la bataille de Peyters; et le bon Counte de Saresbir, William Montagu la achata pur cent mars et le dona a sa compaigne Elizabeth le bone Countesse qe Dieux assoile. Et est continus le Bible, entre ove fixt et glose le mestre desHistoires et Incidentes: tout en mesme le volumé, la quele livre la dite countesse assigna a ses executours de le vendre pur xl livres.”
    Titus Livius. A MS. entitled Titus Livius; des Fais des Romains: translate par Pierre Bertheure avec pientures, is in the British Museum, Royal MS 15 D vi. La Forteress du Foy. Two MSS. with this title are among the Royal MSS. in the British Museum, the one which has only the four first books, is marked 19 E iv., and the other 17 F vi., which is thus described in Casley’s catalogue, La Forteresse de la Foy 5 liv. aveque belles Pienctures faite a Lisle en Flandres per Jehan du Quesne.”
    The Book of Josephus. Several copies of Josephus’ History are in the British Museum, marked 10 A x; 13D vi, and vii, and 13 E viii.
  • Boots of various kinds: See
  • Borough, Sir Thomas: Then knight of the king’s body. He was the father of Sir Thomas Burough of Burgh, K.G., who was summoned to parliament as a baron in the 3rd Henry VII., and was the ancestor of all the subsequent barons.
  • Botews, pairs of: Botews were a kind of large boot, covering the whole leg, and sometimes reached above the knee. By statute 2 and 3 Edward IV., 1463-4, it was ordained “that noo knyght under thastate of a lorde, squier, gentilman, or other persone, use nor were eny shoes or botews, havyng pykes passyng the lengh of ij ynches” on pain of forfeiting 40d., and the same penalty was to be inflicted on any “cornyser” who made pykes of shoen or boteux” of a greater length. — Rot. Parl. v., 505. In the same year, the importation of tanned botes, shoen, galoches or corkes, &c., was strictly prohibited. Ibid. p. 507; and in the 4th Edwrd IV., cordwainers and coblers of the City of London, or within three miles of it, were forbidden to make “eny shoes, galoges or botes with pykes” above two inches; or upon Sunday, or on the feasts of the Nativity, Ascension, and Corpus Christi, “to sell or comaunde or make to be sold eny shoes, botes, or galoges,” or “to put, sette or doo uppon any mannes fete or legges eny shoes, botes, or galoges upon pain of forfeiting 20s.” — Ibid. p. 566. In previous statutes, the only articles of the kind spoken of are “botes et soulers,” and botews seem hitherto to have been confounded, and even by Strutt, who cites these entries, withboots. — Dresses and Habits, ii., 346. That they were different is clearly proved by these Accounts; and in Promptorium Parvulorum in the Harleian MS. 221, they are thus described, “Bote for a mannys legge, bota, ocrea; Botew, cothurnus, botula,” which admits of the inference that a botew was what was previously called the smaller boot, buskin, or golache. This, however, ill agrees with finding that botews are mentioned as always reaching “above the knee” or reaching “unto the knee,” whilst boots are merely noticed as being made of various sorts of leather. Botews that came above the knee were rather dearer than those which only reached to it, but they were of much less price than boots.
  • Botons: See BUTTONS.
  • Boylet, Robert: A servant of the wardrobe.
  • Brampston, Thomas: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Branched (braunched) velvets, and velvets with branches: Probably what is now termed figured velvet.
  • Bray, Robert: One of the persons sent to attend the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Braying ropes for the king’s car: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carr.”
  • Breast coverchiefs: Coverchiefs used to cover the breast.
  • Bridles of various kinds: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carr.”
  • Brigandines, for coverings of: Jackets with pieces of iron quilted in them, which were generally used by archers. — Archæologia xxi. 271. It is evident from these accounts that the brigandines of persons of rank were sometimes covered with cloth of gold, and other rich stuff.
  • Broched, cloth broached with gold: Cloth with words, or ornaments of gold worked upon it. In Palsgrave “broche with a scripture,” occurs.
  • Broderayns for horses: Apparently broad, or wide reins. The word occurs in articles for garnishing of the queen’s litter and chares “broode rayns, v covered with in cloth of gold; brydel rayns ix covered in velvet.” “Brydels, vj with bytts bossed, with broode rayns and chayns; the same bridels covered in cloth of gold and garnyssht with crowns and fleur de lys, chaast and gilt, and with faux rayns, &c.” Rayns and “leding rayns” are also mentioned. — Antiquarian Repertory, ed. 1807. vol. i., p. 47.
  • Browneswyke: A kind of linen cloth. No other instance has been found of the use of this term. Query if cloth made at Brunswick be meant.
  • Brussel cloth, sheets of: See BEDDING.
  • Brusshes of heath: Transcriber’s Note. No definition given by Nicolas, and there are numerous references to these items. E. Parrtridge in his 1983 Etymological Dictionary defines Middle English “heath” as heather, meaning these particular brushes would have been brushes made of heather.
  • Buckles for harnesses: See Part XVII, fourth entry under “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Buckram (bokeram): Transcriber’s Note. No defintion given by Nicolas, but Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary: International Edition traces the word’s original use to mean a fine linen or cotton fabric, in this instance, probably glue-stiffened for stiffening garments.
  • Bunteyn, Richard: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Burdon’s: i.e., as in loads of rushes.
  • Burgundy, Duchess of: See Part I, “Introductory Remarks.”
  • Buscage: Transcriber’s Note. Reference here is to 9 pieces of arras called by that name. Nicolas gives no explanation, but Partridge gives boscage, ME boskage as meaning “a grove” in his Etymological Dictionary 1983 edition, p. 65.
  • Busk: A sort of linen cloth, and apparently of a coarse and common description, as it was used for pailets, linings of valances &c. The word does not occur in the Rolls of Parliament, but busk appears to have been the article called bustian in the sumptuary law of the 3rd and 4th Edward IV. “No man but such as hath possessions of the yerely value of xls.” shall use or wear “In aray for his body any fustian, bustian, nor fustian of Napuls, scarlet cloth engrained &c.” — Rot. Parl. v. 505a. Among the effects of Henry V were l rem’ de bustian cont’ xvij alnz, pris l’ aln’ iij d.
  • Buttons (Botons): Transcriber’s Note. In these accounts the reference appears to be to a decorative item, rather than a practical one, and appears in reference to both clothing and books.

  • Calais, Staple, a merchant of: Thomas Grafton.
  • Camelettes: See CHAMLET.
  • Candles: See Part XVII, fourth entry under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Canterbury: Edward IV visited Canterbury, perhaps with some pious object, some time before September in 1480.
  • Canvas: Transcriber’s Note. This would appear to refer to the canvas used by the skynners and workers of fur in the Great Wardrobe.
  • Capes of cloaks, &c.: See Part XIX, Office of the Robes.
  • Car, the king’s: — expenses of repairing the king’s: See CAR in the Additional Notes.
  • Carmen, the king’s: See Part XVII, fifth entry under “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Carpenters, to: See Part XVIII, first entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Divers Tenementes…”
  • Carriage, for, of divers articles: See Part XVII, entries under both “Expenses Necessarie” and “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Cartemaille, Richard: One of the persons appointed to wait upon the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Carter, Richard: One of the king’s servants. — John. These two persons seem to be described by the name of their occupation.
  • Caster, John: A skinner.
  • Cave, John: A bedmaker.
  • Celours: i.e., ceilings of beds.
  • Cering: Transcriber’s Note. Nicolas gives no explanation and the reference is in relationship to services such as sewing in the Great Wardrobe. Partridge in Etymological Dictionary, 1983 edition, p. 89 traces to cere from the Old French/French cire, meaning “to treat with wax.”
  • Cering candel’,: See CERING.
  • Chains of laten for fixing in agelettes: See AGELETTES.
  • Chairs, — for mending, garnishing, and repairing: See Part XVII, “Expenses Necessarie” and Part XIX, “For the Office of the Beddes…”
  • Chambering of tapestry: Tapestry used for covering the sides of rooms.
  • Chamelet: Transcriber’s Note. Nicolas gives no explanation, but there are frequent references to this fabric in these Accounts. It seems to be a rather lesser fabric than silks and velvets and the Funk & WagnallsStandard Dictionary: International Edition defines camlet (from the Old French chamelot) as “a stiff, closely woven fabric of camel’s-hair, or an imitation of it.” It appears in these Accounts to have been used for heavier, outer garments.
  • Chests: See Part XVII, fifth entry under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Chevel bolt for the king’s car: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carre.”
  • Cheynewe, George: One of the persons appointed to attend the Duchess of Burgundy. As he was allowed a man to wait upon him, he was evidently a gentleman, and was probably the George Cheynu who was protected in the enjoyment of certain grants by the act of resumption 22nd Edward IV., 1482. — Rot. Parl. vi., 201 a. Perhaps he was the George Cheyney, yeoman usher, who attended the funeral of Edward IV. —Archæologia i., 353.
  • Cheyney, John, Esq.: Esquire of the body, and master of the Henxmen. He attended his soveraign’s funeral. In the reign of Richard III, his offices were filled by another person, and it is not improbable that he was the Sir John Cheyney who distinguished himself in the service of Henry VII at Bosworth Field, and who, in the 3rd Hen. VII., was created a baron; became a knight of the garter, and died S.P. about 1496. —Archæologia i., 350, 368, 375. Dugdale’s Baronage ii., 290.