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Index and Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Chirke, Geoffrey through Exchequer, auditors of the…
- Chirke, Geoffrey: One of the persons appointed to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
- Clasps of copper gilt: Some of these clasps, which were marked with the king’s arms, were probably used with apparel; the others werre for books, and werre engraved with roses. See ARMS. —for gilding: See Part XVII, fifth entry under “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
- Claver, Anne: Silkwoman. See note on Silkwomen under CORSE.
- Clerk, John: Auditor of the king’s exchequer. In the 1st Henry VII., a John Clerke and a Richard Sheldon were protected in their office of the auditorship of divers lands which had belonged to the Duke of Clarence. — Rot. Parl. vi., 355. A John Clerke was appointed on of the barons of the exchequer in the Trinity term, 1461; and was dead in the 7th Henry VII. — Ibid. p. 451. A person of those names was also searcher of the town and port of Calais in the 3rd Henry VII. — Ibid. 405.
- Cloth: — of gold of various kinds: Transcriber’s Note. In the Glossary of E. Hallam’s The Wars of the Roses (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988) p. 308, this material is described as “Cloth part or wholly woven of gold thread.” In the numerous references to it in these Accounts, it would appear to mean silk, satin, velvet, &c., into which gold was woven, giving a gilded, but not necessarily patterned effect.
—of silver: Same as of gold.
—French, of various kinds: Transcriber’s Note. There are frequent references to Franche cloth in these Accounts.
—of Mustreviliers: See MUSTREVILLIERS.
—of russet: See RUSSET.
- Clove Hammer: Transcriber’s Note. Item purchased from Piers Draper, citizen and ironmonger of London. It appears initially as a purchase for xij d. and again in the general inventory of the Great Wardrobe.
- Cloutes: Iron plates to keep axle-trees from wearing.
- Coffers: See Part XVII, “Expenses Necessarie.”
- Coffins: i.e., chests of fir for books. See Part XVII, “Yit Expenses Necessarie.”
- Coket, John: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
- Coldherber: Coldharbour, or, as it was sometimes called, “the Harbour,” in Thames Street, London, was the residence of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, in the 32d Henry VI., 1453. — Rot. Parl.v., 450. In the 7th Edward IV it appears to have been in the hands of the crown, probably in consquence of the attainder of the earl in 1459, as in 1467, it was granted to Anne, Duchess of Exeter, the king’s sister, for life. — Rot. Parl. vi., 215, who died seized therof; but on her death in 1476, Coldharbour seems to have again reverted to the crown, and to have been granted to John Neville, afterwards Marquis Montagu, third son of the Earl of Warwick (T.N. An oversight in proofing either the original text or the facsimile edition gives “Warwick,” when the reference is obviously to Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, father of both Richard, Earl of Warwick and John Neville.); for in the 14th Edward IV., 1474, it was the king’s intention to have caused the marquis attainted, which measure he was only refrained from taking at the instance of George, Duke of Clarence, and other peers, but he nevertheless granted it to the Duke, who married the coheir of the the marquis’ elder brother, certain of his lands, of which the mansion or messauge called “The Harbour” was part, to him and his heirs, so long as there were heirs male of the body of the said marquis. — Ibid. vi., 125. Coldharbour again reverted to the crown on the attainder of the Duke of Clarence in 1477; and in 1480, the year to which these Accounts relate, it was clearly one of the royal establishments, and was assigned for the residence of the Duchess of Burgundy on her visit to this country, and also of the ambassadors from Burgundy. It was for some time the Herald’s College.
- Collars, horse: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carre.”
- Cologne thread: Called silke or Cologne silk, was forbidden to be imported on pain of forfeiture by statute 22nd Edward IV.
- Combe Coverchiefs: From the number of these articles, twelve, and their size, each being an ell long, it may be conjectured that they were worn on the head by men as well as by women. Chaucer says,
“Hire coverchiefs weren ful fine of ground,
I dorse swere they weyeden a pound,
That on the Sonday were upon hire hede.”
By the regulations for ladies’ mourning by the Countess of Richmond in 1492, a duchess was allowed four kerchiefs, and a countess two kerchiiefs, besides a barb and a frontlet to each. Handkerchiefs edged with gold were among the effects of Henry VIII. — Harleian MS., 1419.
- Cooke, Roger: Servant of the Duchess of Burgundy.
- Coppersmith, John, bis: Person referred to in Part XVII; so surmaned according to his occupation.
- CordTranscriber’s Note. Reference in these accounts is to heavy cord for use with bed hangings.
- Cordwainers:Transcriber’s Note. Makers of footwear; a Peter Herton is specifically mentioned in Part XVII.
- Corse of silk and satin:“Corse of a gyrdell, tissu. Corse weaver.” — Palsgrave.
A corse of silk seems to have been wove or plaited silk, as Cotgrave explains, “Tissu, a bawdrick, ribbon, fillet, or head band of woven stuff,” also “woven plaited, interlaced, wound one within another.” In the 34th Henry VI., to encourage our own manufactures, “wrought silk throwen, ribans, laces, corses of silke, or eny oyer thing thing wrought touching or concernyng silk wymmens craft, the corses that commen out of Geen only except,” were prohibited to be imported for five years. — Rot. Parl. v., 325. See also p. 506 vi., 223. By statute 3rd and 4th Edward IV., knights under the degree of lord, and their wives, were prohibited from wearing “eny manere corses wrought with gold.” And esquires and gentlemen, and other persons under the rank of a knight, and their wives, were forbidden to wear “eny wrought like to velvet or to sateyn frizery.” —Ibid. vi., 505 b.
From the statute of the 34th Henry VI., it appears, that the manufacture of silk was confined to women, by which employment, it is said, that “many a worshipfull woman within the citee have lyved full honourably, and therwith many good householdes kept, and many gentilwymmen and other in grete noumbre like as there nowe be moo than a thousand have be drawen under theym in lernyng the same craftes.” The importation of wrought silk is said to have caused “grete ydelnes amongs yonge gentilwymmen and oyer apprentices of the same craftes, and the leying down of many good and notable housholdes of them that have occupied the same craftes which be convenient, worshipfull, and accordyng for gentilwymmen and other wymmen of worship.” In reformation of these inconveniences, and “also the premisses tenderly considered and howe it is no commoditee nor thing abidying to th’enrichyng of this lande, but things of pleasuance for theym that liken to have them, whiche every well disposed persone of this lande by reason and natural favour wold rather that wymmen of their nation born and owne blode hade the occupation therof than strange people of other landes,” pray &c.
- Costers: Pieces of tapestry used on the sides of a table, and on the benches around it; and a doser was the part placed at the back. Ann, Lady Maltravers, bequeathed, by her will, in 1374, “a doser of green powdered with dolphins with four costers of the same suit.” William, Lord Morley, in 1379, gave his son his “best dorser, four costers and one banker with his arms.” Costers were also the sides of beds. Joane, Lady Bergavenny, in 1434, bequeathed her bed of silk, black and red, embroidered with woodbine flowers of silver, and all the costers and apparel that belongeth thereto. She also bequeathed her hullyng of black, red and green, with morys letters, with cushions, with bancours, and costers. Among the effects of Henry V were “1 coster de worstede’ vermaille cont’ xi verges de longur’ & iii verg’ de large. Item tapites vermaille, chescun de vj verges de longur, et iiij verges de large, pris de pece iiij s.” Also seven costers of arras of gold worked with various histories, for instance, “Cest emprise de haut noun.” “Si poer voier en memoire.” “of Abraham and Issak,” of the “j joies de Nostre Dame,” &c.
- Costerings: See CARPETS. Costerings appear to have been very similar to costers. Vide also the places where the word occurs.
- Cosyn, Agnes: A semptress.
- Counters: Pieces resembling money formerly used in calculations. Palsgrave translates “counters to caste a count with” by “ject.”
- Counterpoints, for: Another name for a counterpane. Katherine, Lady Hastings, speaks in one part of her will, dated in 1503, of a bed of arras, sillor, testor, and counterpane; and in another place, of certain “stuff of bedding, that is to say, a feller, tester, and counterpoint of rosemary;” and of “a fedder bedde, a boulster, a blanket, a chike happing, and olde counterpoint,” sillor, and testor.” The counterpoints mentioned in these Accounts varied as much in size, as in material and price.
- Counting cloth, green cloth for a: See Part XXI, final entry under “The Somer Clothing of Divers Officers.”
- Courser harness: Transcriber’s Note. Not specifically identified by Nicolas, this would be a harness for a saddle horse, rather than cart or car horse, and generally speaking, a more fleet and spirited one.
- Courteys, Piers: Keeper of the king’s Great Wardrobe. A special warrant was issued by the king, dated 18th November, 12th Edward IV., commanding that a clause should be inserted in the Rolls or Records of the Resumption of the Parliament at Westminster, the 29th April, 3rd Edward IV., in favour of “our trusty and well-beloved servaunt, Piers Curteys, and Alice Russell, the provision ensueth.” This provision protected the said Piers and Alice in the enjoyment of all grants of lands made to them on the 25th October, 4th Edward IV., and enacted that the said grant should be effectual to them and the heirs male of their bodies coming. In the Act of Resumption, 4th Edward IV. Piers Curteys, Groom of the Robes, and William Trussel, Yeoman of the Crown, were secured in the possession of Deerfal Wood and Paletop Wood in Leicester, and Curteys and Alice Russell were then protected in the enjoyment of the grant above mentioned; and again in the 7th and 8th Edward IV., in the act of the 13th Edward IV., and in that of the 1st Henry VII., he was protected in the enjoyment of the offices of keeper of a ward in Leicester Frith, and another in Beaumont Lees, of bailiff of Leicester, and feodary of the king’s honour there, and also of the office of keeper of the Privy Palace of Westminster, and of the Wardrobe within the same. —Rot. Parl. v., 517, 536 b, 592, 594 b, 610 b, vi., 87, 372. The grant of 3d Edward IV to Courteys and Alice Russell was of divers messauges in Leicester and Derby, which had been forfeited by Everard Digby. —Calend. Rot. Patent., 309.
Piers Courteys preserved his office of keeper of the wardrobe during the usurpation of Richard III. —Antiquarian Repertory, vol. i., p. 35. His salary was 100l a year. See Part XVIII, third entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Diverse Tenementes…”
- Coverchief, –hand and breast, –comb: The breast coverchiief was worn over a shirt, and the king possessed an equal number of them and of shirts.
Among the linen of the Earl of Northumberland in 1512, were “al maner of kurchiefs, ande hed kerchiefs breest kerchiefs heede kerchiefs.” Ed. 1827, p. 350. The “head kerchief” was probably the article here called a “comb-kerchief.” Lady Bryan, in a letter asking for linen for the princess, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, when a child, complains that she had “neither gown nor kertel, nor pete cote; nor no maner of linnin for smokes, nor cerchefes, nor sleves, nor rayls, nor body stychets, nor handcerchers, nor molefers, nor begens.” Ellis’ Original Letters, second series, ii., p. 80.
- Crochets of various sizes: Transcriber’s Note. Although Nicolas gives no specific definition, these would appear to be “crotchets,” or hooks of various sizes.
- Crowns, roses, and suns, embroidered on various articles: A white rose, en soleil, or surrounded by the sun, was a favourite badge of Edward IV. The rose is said to have been used by Edward of Langley, Duke of York; and the sun was assumed in consequence of the singular appearance in the heavens, on the morning previous to the battle of Mortimer’s Cross, of three suns, which, as the day advanced, became joined in one, an omen the Yorkists construed into a signal of victory, and which Edward thus perpetuated. See Willement’s Regal Heraldry, pp. 45 and 53, where a drawing of the badge occurs: on the king’s great seal the rose and sun are represented separately. Sandford’s Genealogical History. The crown was, of course, introduced on the articles in these Accounts as indicative of the rank of the royal owner.
- Cruppers: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carre.”
- Cupbearer to the king: Edward Stanley. See STANLEY.
- Cupboards of ostriche board: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
- Cupboard cloths: See reference to these in the Index and Notes to the Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
- Curtains: Transcriber’s Note. All the numerous references to curtains in these Accounts appear to pertain to those for the bed.
- Cushions, of various kinds: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
- Cushion cloths: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
- Damasks: Esquires, gentlemen, and other persons under the rank of a knight were not allowed to wear damask or satin, excepting officers of the king’s household, by statute 3rd and 4th Edward IV., —Rot. Parl. v., 504, vi., 221.
- Dancaster, Thomas: Clerk of the wardrobe.
- Darcy, Thomas: Esquire of the body. He attended the funeral of Edward IV. — Archælogia, i., 350.
- Dawbers: See Part XVIII, see first entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Divers Tenementes…” Transcriber’s Note. As traced in Partridge’s Etymological Dictionary, 1983, p. 140, plasterer.
- Davy, John, of Fowy: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
- Diaper work, table cloths of: Transcriber’s Note. Funk & Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary: International Edition says, “In the Middle Ages, a fine figured silken or linen cloth.”
- Dobinson, Thomas and William: Two of the persons who were appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy, each of whom was allowed a servant to attend upon them.
- Dorset, the Marquis of: Thomas Grey, K.G., Marquis of Dorset, to which dignity he was elevated on the 18th of April, 1475. He was the son-in-law(T.N. Proofing error in either the original edition or the facsimile would appear to account for this substitution for “stepson.”) of the king, being the eldest son of Sir John Grey, Lord Ferrers of Groby, by Eilzabeth Wydvile, who married, secondly, King Edward IV. The marquis was attainted in the 1st Richard III., but was restored in blood and honours the 7th Henry VII., and died in 1501.
- Dorser for a horse: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carre.”
- Doublets: Transcriber’s Note. Standard item of men’s clothing, frequently mentioned in these Accounts; short, close-fitting outer garment, with or without sleeves.
- Dowell, Ralph: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
- Down: See Part XVIII, “The Totall Empcion and Bying of Stuff…” and Part XIX, “The Office off the Beddes…”
- Dragon, the: Probably an inn with the sign of a dragon, which appears to have been situated very near to the Great Wardrobe.
- Draper, Piers: Citizen and ironmonger of London.
- Dunkan, William: Yeoman taylor.
- Easter, John: A skinner.
- Elizabeth, the princess: Afterwards the queen of Henry VII.
- Eltham: It appears from one of these entries that Katherine, the king’s daughter, was baptized and probably was born at the royal palace of Eltham in 1480.
- Emayled Enamelled is sometimes written anelyd, as in the following entry in the Churchwarden’s Accounts of St. Mary Hill, London, in 1486. “Item a myter for a Bishop at Seint Nycholas tide garnyshed with silver and anelyd, and perle, and counterfete stone.” –Nichols’ Illustrations of Ancient Manners, p. 114. The word also occurs in the account of articles delivered from the Great Wardrobe for the coronation of Richard III.: “viij yerdes of crymsyn cloth of gold emayled.” —Antiquarian Repertory, ed. 1807. Vol. i., pp.35, 36.
- Empsion (Empcion): i.e., purchase.
- Ermine: Transcriber’s Note. White fur with black spots, frequently referred to in these Accounts; fur of a type of weasel that turns white in the winter.
- Escutcheons of arms: See ARMS.
- Esquires of the body: In these Accounts, specifically: John Cheyney, Thomas Darcy, and a man mentioned only by surname, Tay.
- Exchequer, auditors of the: Richard Sheldon and John Clerk. See Part XXI, final entry under “The Somer Clothing of Divers Officers.”