Part XXII.3: Index and Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Featherbeds through Jumbard, Martin.

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Index & Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Featherbeds through Jumbard, Martin.

  • Featherbeds: Down or feather-filled mattresses.
  • Ferrara, Duke of: Hercules D’Este, Duke of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, &c., was elected a Knight of the Garter 10th February, 19th Edward IV., 1480, and a few months afterwards the taylor was paid for making his gown, hood, mantle, &c., of the Order. He died in 1505.
  • Ferrour: A blacksmith.
  • Fir, coffins of, i.e., boxes of: See COFFINS and BOOKS.
  • Flemish cloth, sæpe.: — ells: See Part XVIII, “The Totall Empcion and Bying of Stuff…” and sæpe
  • Font, for the covering of a font at the christening of the king’s daughter: From the minute description of the manner in which one of the king’s children was to be christened in the reign of Henry VII., it appears that “the Font must be set on hight that the pepill may see the crestenynge and presse not to ny; and the Font must be hangid with a riche sele and overlaid about with carpets on the greces [steps] and other places; and the Font must be hangide all about with clothe of golde and laid withine withe small lyn clothe,” &c. —Antiquarian Repertory, ed. 1807. vol. i., p. 305.
  • Foot cloths of velvet, for horses: “A cloth protecting the feet, i.e., housings of cloth which hung on every side of a horse. It was long considered as a mark of great dignity and state.” — Nare’sGlossary; and see the examples he cites. The Earl of Bath, in October 1533, in a letter to his countess describing the coronation of Queen Mary, says, “The bearer will tell you how my son served me of my fote cloth and horse harness which he promised you, but and I had made other provision myself of my owne I had bynne like to have taken dishonor.” — History of Hengrave, p. 144.
  • Foot sheets: Sheets used at the bottom of a bed: from the notice of head sheets and foot sheets it would seem that a sheet did not then extend the whole length of a bed. In an account of different ceremonies in the reign of Henry VII, the term is thus used:

    “As For New Yerris Day.
    Item on new yerris day in the mornynge, the kinge when he comythe to his foote schete an uschere of the chaambre to be redy at the chambre dore and say ‘Sire here is a yerris yeft comynge from the quene.’ And then he shall say ‘Let it come in Sire.’ And then the uschere shall let in the messinger with the yefte, and then aftur that the greteste estates servaunt is to come, echon aftur othere as they bene estates: and after that done, all other lordes and ladys after their estats that they bene of. And all this while the kinge muste sit at his fote schete, &c. And this done, the kinge gothe to make him redy, and go to his servis in what array that hym likithe.” “Item the quene then in likewise to sit at hir fote shett, &c. —Antiquarian Repertory.

  • Footmen, clothes for the king’s: See Part XXI, “The Somer Clothing of Divers Officers.”
  • Forfeited goods: Forfeiture was then, as now, the usual penalty for trangressing the laws regulating the importation of goods. The statute under which the seizure here noticed was made was probably that of the 3rd Edward IV., c. 4, by which corses [See CORSES.] were prohibited to be imported on pain of forfeiture, and one-half of which was to go to the king, and the other half to him that first seized it.
  • Forms, joined, and other: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • Fortesse de Foy, a book so called: See BOOKS.
  • Fox skins: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • France, ambassadors of: See Part XVII, second entry under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Franche cloth: Query French cloth.
  • Freman, Thomas: One of the persons sent to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • French books: See BOOKS.
  • Fringes of silk and gold: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • Froissart’s Chronicles: See BOOKS.
  • Frysley, John: Clerk of the king’s stables. He held the same office in 1st Richard III. —Archæologia, i., 375.
    Thomas: One of the servants of the wardrobe.
  • Furs: Mentioned frequently throughout these Accounts, both as items in Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe,” and with specific reference to use as part of a particular item of clothing.
  • Furring of robes, for: See Part XVII: second to last in the opening group of entries.
  • Fustians: Transcriber’s Note. This is a frequently mentioned item for the bed not explained by Nicolas, but Funk & Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary:International Edition say it was “formerly a kind of stout cloth made of cotton and flax,” while Partridge in Etymological Dictionary, 1988, p. 242, defines the word as “cotton, lit tissue of wood.”
    bags of, stuffed with ireos and anneys: See ANNEYS…
  • Fyssher, Davy: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.

  • Gardener, Richard: A labourer.
  • Garments, for making the king’s: See Part XVII: third to last in the opening group of entries.
  • Garter, a gown, mantle, and hood of the Order of the: See FERRARA.
    mantle of the Order of the: See YORK.
  • Garters: Transcriber’s Note. As mentioned in these Accounts, garters for the Order of the Garter.
  • Gentils: i.e., gentry.
  • Gentlewomen, for the conveying and trussing of: This entry seems to defy explanation. The only meaning of “trussing” is to pack close, but it is difficult to reconcile “packing” with “ix worthy gentlewomen” as to conceive what “thirty ells of embroidered busk” or cloth can have had to do with “conveying them.” It probably meant trussing or packing their baggage.
  • Gifts, lists of, given to the Duke of York and other personages: See Parts XX & XXI, “Gifts Disbursed.”
  • Gilmin: A saddler.
  • Girdles: Transcriber’s Note. Frequently mentioned, those is these Accounts were belts made of various kinds of woven ribbon of silk, &c.
  • Glass, a standing: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • Gloves: Gloves were forbidden to be imported in the 3rd and 4th Edward IV., which is the only notice of the article on the Rolls of Parliament.
  • Gold of Venice (Venys): See initial entries in Part XVII.
  • Goldsmiths: See initial entries in Part XVII.
  • Government of Kings and Princes, a book so called: See BOOKS.
  • Gowns, various: Transcriber’s Note. Men’s outer clothing; references and descriptions abound in these Accounts.
  • Grace Dieu: See Part XIX: Goods Delivered into the Office of the Beds…;” second from last entry. Transcriber’s Note. From reference made, it would appear to be a ship.
  • Grafton, Thomas: Merchant of the Staple of Calais.
  • Granford, Thomas: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
    John: yeoman of the crown.
  • Greenwich: See Part XVII, fifth entry under “Expenses Necessarie.”
    manor of: See Part XIX, fourth entry under “For the Office Off the Beddes…”
  • Grenerigge, William: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Grey, George: Son and heir apparent of Edmund, Lord Grey of Ruthyn, first Earl of Kent, whom he succeeded in his honours in 1488. He married first, on the occasion here alluded to, King Edward’s sister-in-law, Anne Wydville, daughter of Richard Earl Rivers and widow of Viscount Bourchier, by whom he had Richard, his son and successor; and secondly, Katherine, daughter of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and died in the 20th Henry VII.
  • Grey, Sir Thomas: Chamberlain to the Duke of York. The name Gray was so common in the fifteenth century that it is difficult to identify this person.
  • Greyson, John: Another of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Guyon, Oliver: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.

  • Hached, cloth of silver, hached on satin ground: “Hatch, to shade by lines in drawing or graving.” —Todd’s Johnson. In this instance “hatched” appears to mean cloth slightly embroidered with silver on a satin ground.
  • Hackney: See Part XX, third entry under “For Th’office of the Stable.”
  • Halle, Richard: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
    William: Yeoman tailor.
  • Halters for horses: See Part XVII, “Reparacion off the Kinges Carre.”
  • Hamerton, John: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Hand coverchiefs: See COVERCHIEFS.
  • Harness, for covering: See Part XX: Office of the Stable & Gifts Disbursed.” Transcriber’s Note.Covering for harnesses is mentioned both as pertaining to the royal stable and as an item given as a gift.
  • Harness for horses: From these descriptions of the harnesses of horses used by persons of high rank, it is evident that they must have presented a splendid appearance; and fully agree with the representations in illuminated MSS. of the period.
    of Milan: Milan was long famous for the manufacture of armour and other articles of steel. Philip Lord Darcy, in 1398, bequeathed to his son “his coat of mail of Milan.
  • Hastings, Pursuivant: Transcriber’s Note. Mentioned on three occasions, all having to do with acquisitions for the Great Wardrobe: first, as provider of ostrich feathers, then twice in connection with black fabric from France.
  • Hatche, Thomas: Apparently a shoemaker.
  • Hatche: The second appearance of this name seems to refer to the pervious one, where it is stated that two pair of slippers were bought of Thomas Hatche.
  • Hatthe, Thomas: One of the king’s wards. From his apparel it is evident he was a gentleman.
  • Hats: See Part XIX, fifth entry under “For the Office off the Roobes…”
  • Hats of wool: “A hat of estate” about this time is thus described in the list of articles delivered for the coronation of Richard III: “ij hattes of estate with rounde rolles behind and sharp beks before covered in crymysyn cloth of gold and furred with ermyns which were for the use of the queen’s gentlemen ushers who rode before her at that ceremony.” —Antiquarian Repertory, ed. 1807. Vol. i., p. 45.
  • Head sheets: See FOOT SHEETS.
  • Head stalls for horses: Palsgrave translates, “Hedd stall of a horse harneis,” by “testiere.” “In the sadler’s shopp, a head stall, raines, crooper, patnell and stiropp leathers all of leather very fayer studded with gilt stoodes and a kind of blewe bugell for a man’s saddell.” –Gage’s History of Hengrave, p. 35.
  • Henxmen, for the clothes of the master of the, and other henxmen: See HENXMEN in the Index and Notes to the Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • Herber, the: See COLD HARBOUR.
  • Hert, Robert: One of the king’s footmen.
  • Heywood, Thomas: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Hinges: See Part XVIII, first entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon to Diverse Tenementes…”
  • Hirton, Peter: Cordwainer.
  • Hobies: A small horse: Palsgrave describes hoby to be “a horse of Ireland.”
  • Hoby, harness: Transcriber’s Note. All three entries pertaining to harness for this particular type of horse, the first at the very beginning, the second under “Yit Expenses Necessarie,” and the last under “The Office of the Stable,” describe elaborately decorated harness. The last is for harness for 10 hobys being given to the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Holland cloth: Transcriber’s Note. Frequently mentioned, especially in reference to sheets, this is not explained by Nicolas. It is defined in Funk & Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary: International Edition, as “unbleached linen, glazed or unglazed.”
  • Holy Trinity, a book called the: See BOOKS.
  • Horse harness: See HARNESS.
    houses: Probably what are now called “housings,” or as written by Dryden, “houss;” cloths originally used to keep off dirt, now added to saddles for ornament. – Todd’s Johnson.
    “Horse houses” are thus mentioned in the list of articles delivered for the coronation of Richard III.: “To the queen for her use, xvj horsehouses, made of xxxvj yerds of canvas; and for to sowe the same horsehousesv lb. of threde, and for to cary to York divers horshneys viij elles canvas.” —Antiquarian Repertory, ed. 1807. Vol. i., p.50.
  • Horse, master of the: John Cheyney, Esq. See CHEYNEY.
  • Hory, John: One of the persons sent to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Hosen: i.e., hose. —of divers colours: Transcriber’s Note.Essential item of clothing frequently mentioned throughout these accounts.
  • Howard, Lord: Sir John Howard, K.G., who was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1470, and was created Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal, by Richard III., in the defense of whose cause he fell at Bosworth field. A memoir of this eminent personage, the founder of the honours of the house of Howard, with two portraits, will be found in Cartwright’s History of Sussex.
  • Hullok, Thomas: One of the persons snet to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Huntingdon, Richard: Clerk of the wardrobe.
  • Huntman, John: One of the royal servants.

  • Imagery (Ymagery), worked on counterpoints: See part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • Ingrain cloth: Transcriber’s Note. This particular fabric is only mentioned three times in these Accounts: first, in the opening entries “violet ingrain” purchased for from eleven to thirteen shillings, four pence a yard; then, as “in greyne,” six yards of which were in the Great Wardrobe at the time the inventory was taken; and again as “x yerdes of violet in greyne” for part of a grant of clothing to the Keeper, Piers Courteys, on the feast of Whitsuntide. The Funk & Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary:International Edition gives the obvious meaning of having been dyed before weaving, but also cites an earlier usage, meaning to “dye with grain,or scarlet. Nicolas gives no explanation, but it would appear that possibly the latter might be meant here.
  • Ink: See Part XVIII, final entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Diverse Tenementes…”
  • Ireos, bags of fustian stuffed with anneys and: Anniseed and orris powder placed among linen to preserve it from insects. A similar entry occurs in teh Churchwarden’s Accounts of St. Margaret’s, Westminster, in 1611. “Paid for a pound of orris powder to put among the church linen, 10d.” –Nichol’s Illustrations of Ancient Times, p. 30.
  • Ireland, skins of foxes of: See initial entries in Part XVII.
  • Ironmonger: In this instance, Piers Draper, citizen and ironmonger of London.
  • Island, fox skins of: Apparently Iceland, though in the entry cited above, fox skins of Ireland are spoken of. That a communication existed between this country and Iceland at an early period is manifest from two entries in the Rolls of Parliament; one in the 3rd Henry V., when the Commons stated, that as fish were scarce on our coasts, fishermen had sought them elsewhere, and that having found plenty on the coasts of “Island,” they had fished there for the last six or seven years, but that strangers from Norway and Denmark had begged the king to prevent their continuing to do so, and they prayed that their request might not be successful. —Rot. Parl. iv., 78 b. The other was in the 9th Henry VI., when the commons stated that certain Englishmen had gone to “Island” with their goods and merchandize, which were endangerred by an edict of the King of Denmark, and that some of their ships and goods had been seized. —Ibid. p. 378. Mr. Sharon Turner in his History of England, has cited many proofs of a trade with Iceland in the reign of Richard III.

  • Jackets: Transcriber’s Note. Nicolas cites only the references to these items of clothing, which are scattered throughout these Accounts.
  • Jackets of woollen cloth, murrey and blue: Murrey and blue were the colours of the livery of the house of York.
  • Jackson, Thomas: One of the persons sent to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Jaks, John: Apparently a sadler.
  • Jewelle, John: One of the persons sent to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Josephus, the book of: See BOOKS.
  • Jumbard, Martin: Embroiderer.