Part XXII.7: Index and Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Wages of divers persons… through ADDITIONAL NOTES.

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Index and Notes to the Wardrobe Accounts: Wages of divers persons… through ADDITIONAL NOTES.

  • Wages of divers persons: See Part XVII, various entries, and Part XVIII, initial entries.
  • Wales, Edward, Prince of: Afterwards King Edward V., whose unhappy fate renders him one of the most interesting personages in our history. This entry relates to the delivery of five yards of white cloth of gold tissue for a gown for him. He was at that time about ten years of age, having been born 14th November, 1470.
  • Walforde, John: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Walker, Henry: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Walyngton, Osborne: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Wards, clothing for the king’s: See HATTHE, THOMAS.
  • Wardrobe, clerk of the: William Misterton.
    keeper and clerk of, his fees: See Part XVIII: 2nd and 3rd entires under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Diverse Tenementes…”
    porter: Thomas Stanes.
    rent gatherer of manions and tenements belonging to the: See RENTEGEDAR.
    revenues of the: See Part XVII, initial entries.
    yeoman tailors of: William Dunkan, William Halle.
  • Warner, James: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Warwick, Earl of: Edward Plantagenet, the king’s nephew, son and heir of George, Duke of Clarence. This young prince bore the title of Warwick, probably in the right of his grandmother, Anne, wife of Richard Nevill, who was created Earl of Warwick to him and his heirs by the said Anne in 1449. He was then about ten years of age, and appears to have been clothed at the king’s expense, though the only notice of him in these accounts is the delivery of shoes and boteux for his use. An object of suspicion both to Richard III and Henry VII, he was imprisoned by each; and he ultimately fell a victim to the jealousy of the latter monarch on a charge of high treason, being beheaded on Tower Hill 28th November, 1499, aged twenty-nine. In him expired the last male of the house of Plantagenet.
  • Washing, for: See Part XVII, entries under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Water flowers: Ornaments made in the form of water flowers. There is cause to believe that a water flower was the badge of Elizabeth Woodville, queen of Edward IV, as the background of her arms in the window of the north transept of Canterbury Cathedral is semée of flowers gules, stemmed and leaved vert. –Willement’s Heraldic Notices of Canterbury Cathedral, p. 35. If these flowers were intended for water flowers, the use of ornaments in that form is at once accounted for. Water flowers seem, however, to have been a favourite device about this period, as Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, in 1490, bequeathed her daughter Marney “a chain of waterflowers.”
  • Watermen See Part XVII, entries under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Wax, sealing: See See Part XVIII, final entry under “Reparacion Maade and Doon in Divers Tenementes…”
  • Weights and scales: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
  • White, William: A tallow-chandler.
  • Whitfield, Nicholas: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Williams, Thomas: Parson of St. Andrew’s, near Baynard’s Castle.
  • Wilshawe, John: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Wilson, Robert: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Windsor Castle, College of Our Lady within: Transcriber’s Note. Very specific and elaborate gifts of material were made by the king to this collegiate chapel at Windsor, but if it was for a particular feast or celebration, it does not say. The warrants for the three, separate gifts were dated 28 May, and 19 and 22 July. See Part XIX, fourth, tenth and eleventh entries under “Yiftes Yeven Aswelle…”
  • Wire drawer; –for a: Rauf Underwood. See part XVII, first entry under “Expenses Necessarie.”
  • Wode, John: Under-treasurer.
  • Wombes: Query, the belly part of the skins.
  • Wollen cloth: See Part XVIII: Inventories of the “Grete Warderobe.”
    given to make blankets: See Part XIX, entries under “For the Office off the Beddes…”
  • Worsley, James: One of the persons appointed to wait on the Duchess of Burgundy.
  • Worsted of various assizes and sorts: Numerous mention in these accounts.
  • Wratone, Piers: Yeoman of the beds.
  • Wydville, Sir Edward: One of the knights of the king’s body, who was appointed to attend on the Duchess of Burgundy. He was probably the uncle of the queen whom Dugdale says is generally but erroneously called “Lord Wydville.” He was keeper of the town and castle of Porchester in the 19th Edward IV, and was slain in Britany in July A{o} 3, Henry VII., being then governor of the Isle of Wight, in which year he was elected a Knight of the Garter, but was never installed. Though called the brother of Earl Rivers, it is much more probable that he was his younger son, the Sir Edward Wydville, brother of Anthony, who is mentioned in that nobleman’s will in 1483. Hall, however, describes him as the queen’s uncle, and calls him a “valiant captain and a bold champion.” Ed. 1809. 439.
  • Wyngfeld, Dame Ann: Query if Ann, daughter of Lord Audley, and wife of Sir John Wingfield, who was sheriff of Norfolk in the 1st Richard III. and 8th Henry VII., and father of Sir Anthony Wingfield, K.G., and ancestor of the baronets of that name.

  • Yeoman of the crown, a: See Part XXI, third entry under “Gifts Disbursed Continued.”
  • York, Richard, Duke of: Richard Plantagenet, the king’s second son, who is supposed to have been murdered in the Tower with his brother, Edward, the Fifth. This unfortunate young prince, who was born at Shrewsbury, was about eight years of age when the articles here noticed were delivered for his use. On the 15th January 1477, he married Ann Mowbray, the daughter and sole heiress of John Duke of Norfolk &c., and was created Duke of Norfolk, his titles being, in the 19th Edward IV., “Duke of York and Norfolk, Earl Warren, Surrey, and Nottingham, Earl Marshal, and Marshal of England, Lord Segrave, Mowbray, and Gower, Lieutenant of Ireland.” He was made a Knight of the Garter, and one of the entries in these Accounts is for the delivery of the robes of the Order.



One of the very few papers of any value in the Archæologia, is an essay on the early use of carriages in England, in the 20th volume, by Mr. Markland, and to which reference may be recommended for valuable information. The only carriages noticed in these Accounts, or in the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV are:

  • The Queen’s Charre, for which axletrees, nails, grease, stirrups, and five yards of cotton russet, &c., were bought in 1503; see Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • The close car of the Queen’s wardrobe: See Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • The wain: See Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York.
  • The king’s car: See Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV.
  • A Litter of blue velvet lined with sarcenet, with blue damask cushions, and bordered with satin figure, given to a Spanish lady in the Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York. Iron pins for that litter. A covering for a litter of blue cloth of gold, with blue damask, with chevrons lined with crimson damask, cushions, &c., also in the Privy Purse Expenses.

On each of these vehicles a few remarks will be submitted.

The THE QUEEN’S CHARE. –Though sometimes confounded, a Chare and a Car were very different articles. A Char, Mr. Markland observes, “differed in nothing from the ancient horse litter, than in having wheels and sometimes a roof: it is of very early origin in this country, and was probably the parent of close carriages;” he adds, “that it was rarely if ever used but on occasions of ceremony, or in cases of sickness.” TheNorthumberland Household Book, and other authorities, justify however the belief that it was always used by ladies if not by men in travelling, when the horse litter was not employed. “Horse lyters and chairs” formed part of the Earl of Northumberland’s establishment in 1512. Ed. 1827, p.351; and to the many proofs adduced by Mr. Markland, of the use and description of Chares, the following, which corroborate his statements, may be acceptable. In a chronicle written in the late 15th century, the word is thus used, “An. 2 Hen. VI. the King was borne toward his modir chare, and he shriked and cryed, and sprang, and wolde nought be caryed fothere.” — “and on Moneday he was borne to the Chare,” — “on Wednesday he cam to London in his moder barm in the Chare, rood through London.” Chronicle of London, p. 112. In 1434, Joan Lady Bergavenney speaks of “her hearse, her Chare, and other convenable purveyance,” being made for her funeral, and bequeaths to her son Sir James Ormond, three of her best horses in her Chare; to John his brother, her next best; and to Thomas his brother, the next best after him; and to John the sixth best. In 1495, Cecily Duchess of York, mother of Edward IV, bequeathed to her daughter the Duchess of Suffolk, her Chair with the covering, all her cushions, horses and harness for the same, with all her palfreys. The word also occurs in the account of the funeral of Edward the Fourth in a manner which illustrates the article meant by it. “–make an ymage like hym clothed in a surcote with a mantell of estate, the laces goodly lying on his belly, his septre in his hand, and a crowne on his hed, and so cary him in a Chare open, with lights and baners.” “And when the masse was don, and all other solempnite, and that the lordes were ready for to ryde, ther was ordeyned a rioall Char covered with blak velvet, having abive that a blak clothe of gold with a white cross of gold, under that a mageste clothe of blak sarsenet, drawen with vj coursers, trapped with blac velvet with certeyn scochens betyn upon sarsenet betyn with fine gold. Apon the fore horse and the thill horse sate ij Charetmen, and on the iiij oder horse sat iiij henshmen.” Archæologia, i., 349, 351. It may be easily imagined that Chares admitted of ornament, and were often splendid; and in the preparations for the reception of Katherine of Aragon in 1502, it was ordered that Five charres diversely apparelled for the ladies and gentlemen, be ready, wherof one of the chief must be richly apparelled and garnished for the Princess.

But the most minute description of Chairs occur in the Account of Stuff delivered for the Coronation of Richard III.

“The queen’s ‘chiefe chare’ was covered aforehand with cloth of gold crymysyn of the Kyngs own store; v paire of draughts were newe covered with xxx yerds of crymysyn cloth of gold,” and “iij sadels for the same chief chare” were also “covered in vj yerds of crymysyn cloth of gold.” “For the garnysshing of the said chif chare” were used “iij unces of ryban of venys gold, and ix unces j quartern of ryban of sylk, and ij lb. ij unces frenge of silk purpull.” The body of the second chare was “covered in vij yerds di of crymysyn velvet, v pair of draughts for the same,” were “covered in xxx yerds crymysyn velvet:” the upper covering consisted of “xiij yerds of velvet crymysyn,” and “for the lynyng of the chare harneys, for the lyning of the second chare within; and for iij covertours of the said chief chare, the second chare, and the third chare, xxxix yerds and a quarter cloths” were delivered out of the Wardrobe. The materials for the third “chare” are then enumerated, but differ little from the preceding; “iij cered cloths” are however noticed, as having been used “for to cover the said chief second and thrid chares for the weder,” also materasses “to lye in the bothams of them,” and “for garnysshing of the forsaide chares xliij lb. of small gilt nailles, and xc grete gilt nailles.” —Antiquarian Repertory, i., 43, et. seq.

THE CAR was, according to Palsgrave, in his Esclarissement de la Langue Francoyse, printed in 1530, “a lytell carte with two wheles,” which agrees with the notices of Cars in these accounts. They were evidently covered with bare hides, and were used for the conveyance of light goods, for which purpose one was attached to the office of the Wardrobe of the Queen’s robes; and in 1480, the King’s carmen were paid a reward “for awaiteng uppon certen of the King’s books, put in the King’s car,” Part XVII, Wardrobe Accounts. Whether Cars were ever used for conveying individuals of rank is uncertain; and from Mr. Markland’s not noticing them, it would seem that he considered them merely as a kind of cart, and consequently as not coming within his object. That a Car and Charre were distinct articles is also shown by this entry in the Northumberland Household Book, “My Lord usith ande accustomyth to pay yerly owt of his Lordship’s coffures to him that standith chargede with the kepynge of his Lordshipis cariages yerly, viz. –Horslyters, chayers, close carres, charryats, and cartis.” Ed. 1827, p. 351. “My Lords carre of Arom” is mentioned in the same page. It is remarkable that Palsgrave should give no other explanation of chair than “Chayre to sytte in,” whilst car, cart, and charyett are thus noticed:–

  • “Carre, a carte, chariot.
    –Carre, a lytell carte with two wheles, char.
    –Carte, charette.
    –Charyet, chariot.

And it is equally singular that in Promptorium Parvulorum in the Harleian MS. 221. which was compiled in 1440, contains no other explanation of chare, than Currus Quadriga, which it appears was synonymous with charyett, whilst car and cart seem to have been deemed the same thing:–

  • “Carre, Carte, currus, currus.
    –Carre, or lytylle carte that oone hors drawythe, Monotosinus. Cath. (i.e., Catholicon of John of Genoa.)
    –Chayere, cathedra.
    –Chare, currus, quadriga.
    –Charyett, supra in chare.

THE LITTER, one of the most ancient modes of travelling, was continued for some time after the introduction of coaches, and is well described by Mr. Markland. He says,

“Perhaps the chief distinction between a horse litter and a ‘chare,’ in point of construction, consisted in the former being without wheels. In one of the illustrations in Mr.Johnes’s translation of Monstrelet, the plate No. 7 (entitled, ‘the Entry of Eleanor of Austria, Queen to Francis I, into Toulouse.’) seems intended to convey the representation of a litter lashed on the backs of two horses, one before and the other behind, and covered by a canopy carried by eight attendants.
“It may be further observed, that the litter appears to have been the more dignified carriage, and was generally used on state occasions only as a conveyance for a single personage of high distinction; whilst the chare was employed on journeys as well as in processions, and usually accommodated several persons of inferior rank. Thus on the departure of Queen Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., to Scotland, she is described as riding on a ‘faire palfrey,’ but after her was “convayd by two footmen one varey riche litere, borne by two faire coursers varey nobly drest, in the wich litere the sayd qwene was borne in the intryng of the good townes, or otherways to her good playsur.” —Archæologia, xx., 447.

In the “Ordinance for the receiving of a Queene, and the coronation of her,” temp. Henry VII., A{o}. 1494, a litter is thus described:

“A Litter must be ordayned for her, covered with white damaske or white cloth of gould, and the horses trapped with the same saddle, and with five cushens of the same sute, twoe longe and three shorte; and in the bottom of the litter a materis of white, with damaske or white cloth of gould with white tartarone alofte.”

In an account of the stuff delivered for the coronation procession of Anne, Queen of Richard III, the “lyter” in which she rode from the Tower to Westminster is described as having been “covered with xvj yerds and iij quarters of white cloth of gold, and lyned within with iij yerds of white damask of sylk garnyssht with iij unces di’ of ryban of gold of venys, and ix unces of ryban of sylk, and ij lb. xij unces of frenge of white silk.” The sadels of the same liter were also covered with “white cloth of gold,” and a matras put in the bothom in the same liter was “covered in ij yerds di’ and quarter of white damask and a cered cloth;” two trappours for two coursours conveying the said liter are also noticed. —Antiquarian Repertory, i., 43.

A CHARIOT was unquestionably a large waggon drawn by six or seven horses of the stronger kind, called on that account “large trotting horses;” the chariot men or waggoners who accompanied it, had a nag or smaller horse allowed them to ride by its side. Northumblerand Household Book, Archæologia, xx., 449, 450. Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII. p. 309.

In the Ordinance of the Household of George, Duke of Clarence, in the 8th Edward IV., 1469, the following provisions are made for the Chair, Litter, and chariot, “v carre horses and ij keepers; vij charriotte horses.”

For the Princess, v coursers, the chaire, and to them iij groomes with iij hakneys; ij coursers for the litter, and to thiem ij groome with one hakneye. –p.99, 100.

A WAIN does not require to be described. The hire of three wayns for carrying three tons of beer, &c. from Burrowbridge to Topclyf in 1512, was eight pence for each wayne. —Northumberland Household Book, p. 138. Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Knight, one of the Judges of the Common Pleas, bequeathed in 1481 to his wife, his best plough with all apparyl thereto, ten of his best plough oxen, and his best wain, and to William Lyttelton, his second son, his second best wain, two ploughs and ten oxen.

  • COTTON, SIR ROGER: Sir Roger Cotton was Master of the Horse to the Queen, and was probably the husband of Margaret Lady Cotton so often mentioned in these Accounts. Leland’s Collectanea, iv. 239. Both he and her were present at her Majesty’s coronation. Ibid., 232, 233. See Privy Purse Expenses.
  • GREY, LADY KATHERINE: This Lady was one of the Queen’s Ladies of Honor. At her Majesty’s Coronation it is said that she and Mrs. Ditton went under the table, whree they sat on either side of the Queen’s feet all the dinner time. —Ibid., 226, 233. See Privy Purse Expenses.
  • GURDEN, LADY: Probably Lady Katherine Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Huntley, and widow of Perkin Warbeck. Lady Katherine was present at the betrothement of the Princess Margaret to the King of Scots in St. Paul’s, in January, 1502. Ibid. 260. It appears from the notice of her in the Privy Purse Expenses that she was attached to the Queen’s person, and attended her into Oxfordshire in November of that year.
  • KATHERINE, LADY: The Princess Katherine, youngest daughter of the Queen, in giving birth to whom her Majesty died. See King’s Daughter in the Index and Notes to the Privy Purse Expenses.